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Article

Maternal Lineages from 10–11th Century Commoner Cemeteries of the Carpathian Basin

1
Department of Genetics, University of Szeged, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
2
Department of Archaeogenetics, Institute of Hungarian Research, H-1014 Budapest, Hungary
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Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Health Center, University of Szeged, H-6725 Szeged, Hungary
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SeqOmics Biotechnology Ltd., H-6782 Mórahalom, Hungary
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Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Centre, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
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Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Szeged, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
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Department of Anthropology, Hungarian Natural History Museum, H-1083 Budapest, Hungary
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Ásatárs Ltd., H-6000 Kecskemét, Hungary
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Department of Archaeology, Institute of Hungarian Research, H-1014 Budapest, Hungary
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Ferenc Móra Museum, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary
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Rippl-Rónai Municipal Museum with Country Scope, H-7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
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Institute of Genetics, Biological Research Centre, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors jointly supervised this work.
Academic Editors: Jennifer A. Leonard and David Caramelli
Genes 2021, 12(3), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030460
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 10 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ancient and Archaic Genomes)
Nomadic groups of conquering Hungarians played a predominant role in Hungarian prehistory, but genetic data are available only from the immigrant elite strata. Most of the 10–11th century remains in the Carpathian Basin belong to common people, whose origin and relation to the immigrant elite have been widely debated. Mitogenome sequences were obtained from 202 individuals with next generation sequencing combined with hybridization capture. Median joining networks were used for phylogenetic analysis. The commoner population was compared to 87 ancient Eurasian populations with sequence-based (Fst) and haplogroup-based population genetic methods. The haplogroup composition of the commoner population markedly differs from that of the elite, and, in contrast to the elite, commoners cluster with European populations. Alongside this, detectable sub-haplogroup sharing indicates admixture between the elite and the commoners. The majority of the 10–11th century commoners most likely represent local populations of the Carpathian Basin, which admixed with the eastern immigrant groups (which included conquering Hungarians). View Full-Text
Keywords: ancient mitogenome; Hungarian commoners; Carpathian Basin ancient mitogenome; Hungarian commoners; Carpathian Basin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maár, K.; Varga, G.I.B.; Kovács, B.; Schütz, O.; Maróti, Z.; Kalmár, T.; Nyerki, E.; Nagy, I.; Latinovics, D.; Tihanyi, B.; Marcsik, A.; Pálfi, G.; Bernert, Z.; Gallina, Z.; Varga, S.; Költő, L.; Raskó, I.; Török, T.; Neparáczki, E. Maternal Lineages from 10–11th Century Commoner Cemeteries of the Carpathian Basin. Genes 2021, 12, 460. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030460

AMA Style

Maár K, Varga GIB, Kovács B, Schütz O, Maróti Z, Kalmár T, Nyerki E, Nagy I, Latinovics D, Tihanyi B, Marcsik A, Pálfi G, Bernert Z, Gallina Z, Varga S, Költő L, Raskó I, Török T, Neparáczki E. Maternal Lineages from 10–11th Century Commoner Cemeteries of the Carpathian Basin. Genes. 2021; 12(3):460. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030460

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maár, Kitti, Gergely I.B. Varga, Bence Kovács, Oszkár Schütz, Zoltán Maróti, Tibor Kalmár, Emil Nyerki, István Nagy, Dóra Latinovics, Balázs Tihanyi, Antónia Marcsik, György Pálfi, Zsolt Bernert, Zsolt Gallina, Sándor Varga, László Költő, István Raskó, Tibor Török, and Endre Neparáczki. 2021. "Maternal Lineages from 10–11th Century Commoner Cemeteries of the Carpathian Basin" Genes 12, no. 3: 460. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030460

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