Next Article in Journal
Transcript Variants of Genes Involved in Neurodegeneration Are Differentially Regulated by the APOE and MAPT Haplotypes
Next Article in Special Issue
Responses to Mineral Supplementation and Salmon Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Infestation in Skin Layers of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)
Previous Article in Journal
Genetic Drivers of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Aberrant Splicing Events, Mutational Burden, HPV Infection and Future Targets
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sensitivity to Dietary Wheat Gluten in Atlantic Salmon Indicated by Gene Expression Changes in Liver and Intestine
Article

Molecular Pathways and Pigments Underlying the Colors of the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera var. cumingii (Linnaeus 1758)

1
IFREMER, UMR 241 Écosystèmes Insulaires Océaniens, Labex Corail, Centre Ifremer du Pacifique, BP 49, 98725 Tahiti, France
2
IHPE, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IFREMER, Univ Perpignan Via Domitia, Montpellier, France
3
MARBEC, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IFREMER, IRD, Montpellier, France
4
Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, Marseille, France
5
Service de Bioinformatique, Département IRSI, IFREMER, ZI de la Pointe du Diable, 29280 Plouzané, France
6
EPHE-UPVD-CNRS, USR 3278 CRIOBE, Labex Corail, PSL Research University, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Figueras
Genes 2021, 12(3), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030421
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 2 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 March 2021 / Published: 15 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Research in Aquaculture)
The shell color of the Mollusca has attracted naturalists and collectors for hundreds of years, while the molecular pathways regulating pigment production and the pigments themselves remain poorly described. In this study, our aim was to identify the main pigments and their molecular pathways in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera—the species displaying the broadest range of colors. Three inner shell colors were investigated—red, yellow, and green. To maximize phenotypic homogeneity, a controlled population approach combined with common garden conditioning was used. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes (RNA-seq) of P. margaritifera with different shell colors revealed the central role of the heme pathway, which is involved in the production of red (uroporphyrin and derivates), yellow (bilirubin), and green (biliverdin and cobalamin forms) pigments. In addition, the Raper–Mason, and purine metabolism pathways were shown to produce yellow pigments (pheomelanin and xanthine) and the black pigment eumelanin. The presence of these pigments in pigmented shell was validated by Raman spectroscopy. This method also highlighted that all the identified pathways and pigments are expressed ubiquitously and that the dominant color of the shell is due to the preferential expression of one pathway compared with another. These pathways could likely be extrapolated to many other organisms presenting broad chromatic variation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pinctada margaritifera; color; pigment; transcriptomics; Raman spectroscopy Pinctada margaritifera; color; pigment; transcriptomics; Raman spectroscopy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Stenger, P.-L.; Ky, C.-L.; Reisser, C.; Duboisset, J.; Dicko, H.; Durand, P.; Quintric, L.; Planes, S.; Vidal-Dupiol, J. Molecular Pathways and Pigments Underlying the Colors of the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera var. cumingii (Linnaeus 1758). Genes 2021, 12, 421. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030421

AMA Style

Stenger P-L, Ky C-L, Reisser C, Duboisset J, Dicko H, Durand P, Quintric L, Planes S, Vidal-Dupiol J. Molecular Pathways and Pigments Underlying the Colors of the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera var. cumingii (Linnaeus 1758). Genes. 2021; 12(3):421. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030421

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stenger, Pierre-Louis, Chin-Long Ky, Céline Reisser, Julien Duboisset, Hamadou Dicko, Patrick Durand, Laure Quintric, Serge Planes, and Jeremie Vidal-Dupiol. 2021. "Molecular Pathways and Pigments Underlying the Colors of the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera var. cumingii (Linnaeus 1758)" Genes 12, no. 3: 421. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030421

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop