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A Review of Probabilistic Genotyping Systems: EuroForMix, DNAStatistX and STRmix™

Forensic Genetics Research Group, Department of Forensic Sciences, Oslo University Hospital, 0372 Oslo, Norway
Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo, Norway
Division of Biological Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute, P.O. Box 24044, 2490 AA The Hague, The Netherlands
Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited, Private Bag 92021, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Forensic Science SA, GPO Box 2790, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emiliano Giardina
Genes 2021, 12(10), 1559;
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 24 September 2021 / Accepted: 28 September 2021 / Published: 30 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Forensic Genetics)
Probabilistic genotyping has become widespread. EuroForMix and DNAStatistX are both based upon maximum likelihood estimation using a γ model, whereas STRmix™ is a Bayesian approach that specifies prior distributions on the unknown model parameters. A general overview is provided of the historical development of probabilistic genotyping. Some general principles of interpretation are described, including: the application to investigative vs. evaluative reporting; detection of contamination events; inter and intra laboratory studies; numbers of contributors; proposition setting and validation of software and its performance. This is followed by details of the evolution, utility, practice and adoption of the software discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: probabilistic genotyping; EuroForMix; DNAStatistX; STRmixTM probabilistic genotyping; EuroForMix; DNAStatistX; STRmixTM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gill, P.; Benschop, C.; Buckleton, J.; Bleka, Ø.; Taylor, D. A Review of Probabilistic Genotyping Systems: EuroForMix, DNAStatistX and STRmix™. Genes 2021, 12, 1559.

AMA Style

Gill P, Benschop C, Buckleton J, Bleka Ø, Taylor D. A Review of Probabilistic Genotyping Systems: EuroForMix, DNAStatistX and STRmix™. Genes. 2021; 12(10):1559.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gill, Peter, Corina Benschop, John Buckleton, Øyvind Bleka, and Duncan Taylor. 2021. "A Review of Probabilistic Genotyping Systems: EuroForMix, DNAStatistX and STRmix™" Genes 12, no. 10: 1559.

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