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Home and Away: The Role of Non-Coding RNA in Intracellular and Intercellular DNA Damage Response

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
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Academic Editor: Martin Dutertre
Genes 2021, 12(10), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12101475
Received: 2 September 2021 / Revised: 20 September 2021 / Accepted: 21 September 2021 / Published: 23 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reciprocal Links between RNA Metabolism and DNA Damage)
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has recently emerged as a vital component of the DNA damage response (DDR), which was previously believed to be solely regulated by proteins. Many species of ncRNA can directly or indirectly influence DDR and enhance DNA repair, particularly in response to double-strand DNA breaks, which may hold therapeutic potential in the context of cancer. These include long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), microRNA, damage-induced lncRNA, DNA damage response small RNA, and DNA:RNA hybrid structures, which can be categorised as cis or trans based on the location of their synthesis relative to DNA damage sites. Mechanisms of RNA-dependent DDR include the recruitment or scaffolding of repair factors at DNA break sites, the regulation of repair factor expression, and the stabilisation of repair intermediates. DDR can also be communicated intercellularly via exosomes, leading to bystander responses in healthy neighbour cells to generate a population-wide response to damage. Many microRNA species have been directly implicated in the propagation of bystander DNA damage, autophagy, and radioresistance, which may prove significant for enhancing cancer treatment via radiotherapy. Here, we review recent developments centred around ncRNA and their contributions to intracellular and intercellular DDR mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA damage; repair; RNA; exosomes; miRNA; lncRNA; bystander effect DNA damage; repair; RNA; exosomes; miRNA; lncRNA; bystander effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shaw, A.; Gullerova, M. Home and Away: The Role of Non-Coding RNA in Intracellular and Intercellular DNA Damage Response. Genes 2021, 12, 1475. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12101475

AMA Style

Shaw A, Gullerova M. Home and Away: The Role of Non-Coding RNA in Intracellular and Intercellular DNA Damage Response. Genes. 2021; 12(10):1475. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12101475

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shaw, Annabelle, and Monika Gullerova. 2021. "Home and Away: The Role of Non-Coding RNA in Intracellular and Intercellular DNA Damage Response" Genes 12, no. 10: 1475. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12101475

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