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Open AccessArticle

Genetic Structure and Relationships among Wild and Cultivated Grapevines from Central Europe and Part of the Western Balkan Peninsula

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Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Put Duilova 11, 21000 Split, Croatia
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National Agricultural Research and Innovation Center, Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology, Romai. St. 181, 8261 Badacsonytomaj, Hungary
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Szent Istvan University Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Páter Károly u. 1, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
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Institut für Geographie und Geoökologie–Abteilung Aueninstitut, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Josefstr. 1, 76437 Rastatt, Germany
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Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Institute for the Systematics of higher Fungi, Velika vas 17, Slo-1262 Dol pri Ljubljani, Slovenia
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Department of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biometrics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Viticulture and Enology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Centre of Excellence for Biodiversity and Molecular Plant Breeding (CoE CroP-BioDiv), Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Julius Kühn-Institut, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof, 76833 Siebeldingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(9), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11090962
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 17 August 2020 / Published: 20 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Diversity of Grapevine)
The genetic diversity and relationship between wild (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmel.) Hegi and cultivated (V. vinifera L. subsp. vinifera) grapevine in the western Balkan region and Central Europe have not been studied together previously, although this area has a rich viticultural past. Here, we studied wild grapevine populations sampled from their natural habitats in several countries of the western Balkan region and Central Europe. Their genetic diversity and structure were compared to cultivars that are traditionally in use in this region. A sample set of 243 accessions was genotyped at 20 nuclear microsatellite loci, including 167 sylvestris and 76 diverse vinifera cultivars. The genetic diversity of the wild grapevines was lower than that of cultivars by all genetic parameters. Both hierarchical and nonhierarchical clustering methods differentiated two main groups, indicating clear separation between wild and cultivated vines but also revealed clear gene flow between the cultivated and wild gene pools through overlaps and admixed ancestry values in the graphs. There was greater affinity to the wild grapes in Central European cultivars than in Balkan cultivars. Fine arrangement of the structure among cultivated grapevines showed differentiation among Central European and Balkan cultivars. These results confirm the divergence of wild grapes from vinifera and highlight the “crossroad” role of the western Balkan peninsula in the broader context of European viticulture. View Full-Text
Keywords: V. v. subsp. vinifera; V. v. subsp. sylvestris; microsatellite; genetic structure; gene flow; wild grape V. v. subsp. vinifera; V. v. subsp. sylvestris; microsatellite; genetic structure; gene flow; wild grape
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Zdunić, G.; Lukšić, K.; Nagy, Z.A.; Mucalo, A.; Hančević, K.; Radić, T.; Butorac, L.; Jahnke, G.G.; Kiss, E.; Ledesma-Krist, G.; Regvar, M.; Likar, M.; Piltaver, A.; Žulj Mihaljević, M.; Maletić, E.; Pejić, I.; Werling, M.; Maul, E. Genetic Structure and Relationships among Wild and Cultivated Grapevines from Central Europe and Part of the Western Balkan Peninsula. Genes 2020, 11, 962.

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