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Open AccessArticle

Growth Trajectories in Genetic Subtypes of Prader–Willi Syndrome

1
Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Royal Children’s Hospital, Parkville 3052, Australia
2
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Australia
3
Department of Clinical Genetics, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Reproduction & Development Research Institute, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(7), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11070736
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 30 June 2020 / Published: 2 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Prader-Willi syndrome)
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare disorder caused by the loss of expression of genes on the paternal copy of chromosome 15q11-13. The main molecular subtypes of PWS are the deletion of 15q11-13 and non-deletion, and differences in neurobehavioral phenotype are recognized between the subtypes. This study aimed to investigate growth trajectories in PWS and associations between PWS subtype (deletion vs. non-deletion) and height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Growth data were available for 125 individuals with PWS (63 males, 62 females), of which 72 (57.6%) had the deletion subtype. There was a median of 28 observations per individual (range 2–85), producing 3565 data points distributed from birth to 18 years of age. Linear mixed models with cubic splines, subject-specific random effects and an autoregressive correlation structure were used to model the longitudinal growth data whilst accounting for the nature of repeated measures. Height was similar for males in both PWS subtypes, with non-deletion females being shorter than deletion females for older ages. Weight and BMI were estimated to be higher in the deletion subtype compared to the non-deletion subtype, with the size of difference increasing with advancing age for weight. These results suggest that individuals with deletion PWS are more prone to obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Prader–Willi syndrome; weight; obesity; BMI; pediatric; linear mixed models Prader–Willi syndrome; weight; obesity; BMI; pediatric; linear mixed models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shepherd, D.A.; Vos, N.; Reid, S.M.; Godler, D.E.; Guzys, A.; Moreno-Betancur, M.; Amor, D.J. Growth Trajectories in Genetic Subtypes of Prader–Willi Syndrome. Genes 2020, 11, 736. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11070736

AMA Style

Shepherd DA, Vos N, Reid SM, Godler DE, Guzys A, Moreno-Betancur M, Amor DJ. Growth Trajectories in Genetic Subtypes of Prader–Willi Syndrome. Genes. 2020; 11(7):736. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11070736

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shepherd, Daisy A.; Vos, Niels; Reid, Susan M.; Godler, David E.; Guzys, Angela; Moreno-Betancur, Margarita; Amor, David J. 2020. "Growth Trajectories in Genetic Subtypes of Prader–Willi Syndrome" Genes 11, no. 7: 736. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11070736

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