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Article

Taxonomic Diversity Not Associated with Gross Karyotype Differentiation: The Case of Bighead Carps, Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Xenocyprididae)

1
Laboratory of Fish Genetics, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Rumburská 89, 277-21 Liběchov, Czech Republic
2
Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz km 235 cep, São Carlos 13565-905, Brazil
3
Research Institute of Aquaculture No. 1, Dinh Bang, Tu Son, Bac Ninh 16000, Vietnam
4
Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, 2-128-43 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(5), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11050479
Received: 26 February 2020 / Revised: 31 March 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 28 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms Driving Karyotype Evolution and Genomic Architecture)
The bighead carps of the genus Hypophthalmichthys (H. molitrix and H. nobilis) are important aquaculture species. They were subjected to extensive multidisciplinary research, but with cytogenetics confined to conventional protocols only. Here, we employed Giemsa-/C-/CMA3- stainings and chromosomal mapping of multigene families and telomeric repeats. Both species shared (i) a diploid chromosome number 2n = 48 and the karyotype structure, (ii) low amount of constitutive heterochromatin, (iii) the absence of interstitial telomeric sites (ITSs), (iv) a single pair of 5S rDNA loci adjacent to one major rDNA cluster, and (v) a single pair of co-localized U1/U2 snDNA tandem repeats. Both species, on the other hand, differed in (i) the presence/absence of remarkable interstitial block of constitutive heterochromatin on the largest acrocentric pair 11 and (ii) the number of major (CMA3-positive) rDNA sites. Additionally, we applied here, for the first time, the conventional cytogenetics in H. harmandi, a species considered extinct in the wild and/or extensively cross-hybridized with H. molitrix. Its 2n and karyotype description match those found in the previous two species, while silver staining showed differences in distribution of major rDNA. The bighead carps thus represent another case of taxonomic diversity not associated with gross karyotype differentiation, where 2n and karyotype structure cannot help in distinguishing between genomes of closely related species. On the other hand, we demonstrated that two cytogenetic characters (distribution of constitutive heterochromatin and major rDNA) may be useful for diagnosis of pure species. The universality of these markers must be further verified by analyzing other pure populations of bighead carps. View Full-Text
Keywords: comparative fish cytogenetics; cytotaxonomy; chromosome banding; East Asian cypriniform fishes; FISH; rDNA; snDNA comparative fish cytogenetics; cytotaxonomy; chromosome banding; East Asian cypriniform fishes; FISH; rDNA; snDNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sember, A.; Pelikánová, Š.; de Bello Cioffi, M.; Šlechtová, V.; Hatanaka, T.; Do Doan, H.; Knytl, M.; Ráb, P. Taxonomic Diversity Not Associated with Gross Karyotype Differentiation: The Case of Bighead Carps, Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Xenocyprididae). Genes 2020, 11, 479. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11050479

AMA Style

Sember A, Pelikánová Š, de Bello Cioffi M, Šlechtová V, Hatanaka T, Do Doan H, Knytl M, Ráb P. Taxonomic Diversity Not Associated with Gross Karyotype Differentiation: The Case of Bighead Carps, Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Xenocyprididae). Genes. 2020; 11(5):479. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11050479

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sember, Alexandr, Šárka Pelikánová, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Vendula Šlechtová, Terumi Hatanaka, Hiep Do Doan, Martin Knytl, and Petr Ráb. 2020. "Taxonomic Diversity Not Associated with Gross Karyotype Differentiation: The Case of Bighead Carps, Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Xenocyprididae)" Genes 11, no. 5: 479. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11050479

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