The trimeric transcription factor (TF) NF-Y regulates the CCAAT box, a DNA element enriched in promoters of genes overexpressed in many types of cancer. The regulatory NF-YA is present in two major isoforms, NF-YAl (“long”) and NF-YAs (“short”). There is growing indication that NF-YA levels are increased in tumors. Here, we report interrogation of RNA-Seq TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas)—all 576 samples—and GEO (Gene Expression Ominibus) datasets of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). NF-YAs is overexpressed in the three subtypes, proliferative, inflammatory, and TRU (terminal respiratory unit). CCAAT is enriched in promoters of tumor differently expressed genes (DEG) and in the proliferative/inflammatory intersection, matching with KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) terms cell-cycle
. Increasing levels of NF-YAs are observed from low to high CpG island methylator phenotypes (CIMP). We identified 166 genes overexpressed in LUAD cell lines with low NF-YAs/NF-YAl ratios: applying this centroid to TCGA samples faithfully predicted tumors’ isoform ratio. This signature lacks CCAAT in promoters. Finally, progression-free intervals and hazard ratios concurred with the worst prognosis of patients with either a low or high NF-YAs/NF-YAl ratio. In conclusion, global overexpression of NF-YAs is documented in LUAD and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior; however, a similar prognosis is recorded in tumors with high levels of NF-YAl and overexpressed CCAAT-less genes.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited