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The Mitochondrial Genome of Amara aulica (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae) and Insights into the Phylogeny of Ground Beetles

1
College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
2
Technical Center, Zhengzhou Customs District, Zhengzhou 450002, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11020181
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 9 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
Carabidae are one of the most species-rich families of beetles, comprising more than 40,000 described species worldwide. Forty-three complete or partial mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from this family have been published in GenBank to date. In this study, we sequenced a nearly complete mitogenome of Amara aulica (Carabidae), using a next-generation sequencing method. This mitogenome was 16,646 bp in length, which encoded the typical 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a putative control region. Combining with the published mitogenomes of Carabidae and five outgroup species from Trachypachidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae, we performed phylogenetic estimates under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference criteria to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of carabid beetles. The results showed that the family Carabidae was a non-monophyletic assemblage. The subfamilies Cicindelinae, Elaphrinae, Carabinae, Trechinae and Harpalinae were recovered as monophyletic groups. Moreover, the clade (Trechinae + (Brachininae + Harpalinae)) was consistently recovered in all analyses.
Keywords: ground beetle; mitogenome; next-generation sequencing; phylogeny ground beetle; mitogenome; next-generation sequencing; phylogeny
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Li, X.; Song, N.; Tang, H.; Yin, X. The Mitochondrial Genome of Amara aulica (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae) and Insights into the Phylogeny of Ground Beetles. Genes 2020, 11, 181.

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