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Article

Karyotype Evolution in 10 Pinniped Species: Variability of Heterochromatin versus High Conservatism of Euchromatin as Revealed by Comparative Molecular Cytogenetics

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Department of Comparative Genomics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
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Department of Higher Vertebrate Ecology, Kamchatka Branch of Pacific Geographical Institute of Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 683000 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia
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Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 685000 Magadan, Russia
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San Diego Zoo Global, San Diego, CA 92101, USA
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BSP-CCR Genetics Core, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, 8560 Progress Drive, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
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ShanLen Enterprises, Austin, TX 78757, USA
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Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, 49 Kronverkskiy Pr., 197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Guy Harvey Oceanographic Center, Nova Southeastern University Ft. Lauderdale, 8000 North Ocean Drive, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33004, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(12), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121485
Received: 12 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genome Diversity of Adaptation and Speciation)
Pinnipedia karyotype evolution was studied here using human, domestic dog, and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes to obtain comparative chromosome maps among species of Odobenidae (Odobenus rosmarus), Phocidae (Phoca vitulina, Phoca largha, Phoca hispida, Pusa sibirica, Erignathus barbatus), and Otariidae (Eumetopias jubatus, Callorhinus ursinus, Phocarctos hookeri, and Arctocephalus forsteri). Structural and functional chromosomal features were assessed with telomere repeat and ribosomal-DNA probes and by CBG (C-bands revealed by barium hydroxide treatment followed by Giemsa staining) and CDAG (Chromomycin A3-DAPI after G-banding) methods. We demonstrated diversity of heterochromatin among pinniped karyotypes in terms of localization, size, and nucleotide composition. For the first time, an intrachromosomal rearrangement common for Otariidae and Odobenidae was revealed. We postulate that the order of evolutionarily conserved segments in the analyzed pinnipeds is the same as the order proposed for the ancestral Carnivora karyotype (2n = 38). The evolution of conserved genomes of pinnipeds has been accompanied by few fusion events (less than one rearrangement per 10 million years) and by novel intrachromosomal changes including the emergence of new centromeres and pericentric inversion/centromere repositioning. The observed interspecific diversity of pinniped karyotypes driven by constitutive heterochromatin variation likely has played an important role in karyotype evolution of pinnipeds, thereby contributing to the differences of pinnipeds’ chromosome sets. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluorescence in situ hybridization; telomere repeat; rDNA probe; CBG staining; CDAG banding; constitutive heterochromatin; pericentric inversion; semiaquatic mammal; seal; walrus; tandem fusion; evolutionary new centromere; chromosome map fluorescence in situ hybridization; telomere repeat; rDNA probe; CBG staining; CDAG banding; constitutive heterochromatin; pericentric inversion; semiaquatic mammal; seal; walrus; tandem fusion; evolutionary new centromere; chromosome map
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beklemisheva, V.R.; Perelman, P.L.; Lemskaya, N.A.; Proskuryakova, A.A.; Serdyukova, N.A.; Burkanov, V.N.; Gorshunov, M.B.; Ryder, O.; Thompson, M.; Lento, G.; O’Brien, S.J.; Graphodatsky, A.S. Karyotype Evolution in 10 Pinniped Species: Variability of Heterochromatin versus High Conservatism of Euchromatin as Revealed by Comparative Molecular Cytogenetics. Genes 2020, 11, 1485. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121485

AMA Style

Beklemisheva VR, Perelman PL, Lemskaya NA, Proskuryakova AA, Serdyukova NA, Burkanov VN, Gorshunov MB, Ryder O, Thompson M, Lento G, O’Brien SJ, Graphodatsky AS. Karyotype Evolution in 10 Pinniped Species: Variability of Heterochromatin versus High Conservatism of Euchromatin as Revealed by Comparative Molecular Cytogenetics. Genes. 2020; 11(12):1485. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121485

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beklemisheva, Violetta R., Polina L. Perelman, Natalya A. Lemskaya, Anastasia A. Proskuryakova, Natalya A. Serdyukova, Vladimir N. Burkanov, Maksim B. Gorshunov, Oliver Ryder, Mary Thompson, Gina Lento, Stephen J. O’Brien, and Alexander S. Graphodatsky. 2020. "Karyotype Evolution in 10 Pinniped Species: Variability of Heterochromatin versus High Conservatism of Euchromatin as Revealed by Comparative Molecular Cytogenetics" Genes 11, no. 12: 1485. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121485

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