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Article

Insecticide Resistance Profiling of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae Populations in the Southern Senegal: Role of Target Sites and Metabolic Resistance Mechanisms

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Laboratoire d’Écologie Vectorielle et Parasitaire, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar BP 5005, Senegal
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Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), Yaounde BP 13591, Cameroon
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Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
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Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology, School of Life Sciences, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme ST5 5BG, UK
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Centre Muraz/Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso BP 545, Burkina Faso
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Pôle de Zoologie Médicale, Institut Pasteur de Dakar, 36 Avenue Pasteur, Dakar BP 220, Senegal
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Service de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Faculté de Médecine, Pharmacie et d’Odontologie, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar BP 5005, Senegal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(12), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121403
Received: 28 September 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 20 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance among the main malaria vectors is threatening the effectiveness of vector control interventions in Senegal. The main drivers of this resistance in the Anopheles gambiae complex (e.g., An. gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii) remains poorly characterized in Senegal. Here we characterized the main target site and metabolic resistances mechanisms among the An. gambiae and An. coluzzii populations from their sympatric and allopatric or predominance area in Senegal. Larvae and pupae of An. gambiae s.l. were collected, reared to adulthood, and then used for insecticides susceptibility and synergist assays using the WHO (World Health Organisation) test kits for adult mosquitoes. The TaqMan method was used for the molecular characterization of the main target site insecticide resistance mechanisms (Vgsc-1014F, Vgsc-1014S, N1575Y and G119S). A RT-qPCR (Reverse Transcriptase-quantitative Polymerase Chaine Reaction) was performed to estimate the level of genes expression belonging to the CYP450 (Cytochrome P450) family. Plasmodium infection rate was investigated using TaqMan method. High levels of resistance to pyrethroids and DDT and full susceptibility to organophosphates and carbamates where observed in all three sites, excepted a probable resistance to bendiocarb in Kedougou. The L1014F, L1014S, and N1575Y mutations were found in both species. Pre-exposure to the PBO (Piperonyl butoxide) synergist induced a partial recovery of susceptibility to permethrin and full recovery to deltamethrin. Subsequent analysis of the level of genes expression, revealed that the CYP6Z1 and CYP6Z2 genes were over-expressed in wild-resistant mosquitoes compared to the reference susceptible strain (Kisumu), suggesting that both the metabolic resistance and target site mutation involving kdr mutations are likely implicated in this pyrethroid resistance. The presence of both target-site and metabolic resistance mechanisms in highly pyrethroid-resistant populations of An. gambiae s.l. from Senegal threatens the effectiveness and the sustainability of the pyrethroid-based tools and interventions currently deployed in the country. The Kdr-west mutation is widely widespread in An. coluzzii sympatric population. PBO or Duo nets and IRS (Indoor Residual Spraying) with organophosphates could be used as an alternative measure to sustain malaria control in the study area. View Full-Text
Keywords: malaria; An. coluzzii; An. gambiae; pyrethroid; kdr; N1575Y; metabolic resistance; Senegal malaria; An. coluzzii; An. gambiae; pyrethroid; kdr; N1575Y; metabolic resistance; Senegal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gueye, O.K.; Tchouakui, M.; Dia, A.K.; Faye, M.B.; Ahmed, A.A.; Wondji, M.J.; Nguiffo, D.N.; J. Mugenzi, L.M.; Tripet, F.; Konaté, L.; Diabate, A.; Dia, I.; Gaye, O.; Faye, O.; Niang, E.H.A.; S. Wondji, C. Insecticide Resistance Profiling of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae Populations in the Southern Senegal: Role of Target Sites and Metabolic Resistance Mechanisms. Genes 2020, 11, 1403. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121403

AMA Style

Gueye OK, Tchouakui M, Dia AK, Faye MB, Ahmed AA, Wondji MJ, Nguiffo DN, J. Mugenzi LM, Tripet F, Konaté L, Diabate A, Dia I, Gaye O, Faye O, Niang EHA, S. Wondji C. Insecticide Resistance Profiling of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae Populations in the Southern Senegal: Role of Target Sites and Metabolic Resistance Mechanisms. Genes. 2020; 11(12):1403. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121403

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gueye, Oumou. K., Magellan Tchouakui, Abdoulaye K. Dia, Mouhamed B. Faye, Amblat A. Ahmed, Murielle J. Wondji, Daniel N. Nguiffo, Leon. M. J. Mugenzi, Frederic Tripet, Lassana Konaté, Abdoulaye Diabate, Ibrahima Dia, Oumar Gaye, Ousmane Faye, El H.A. Niang, and Charles S. Wondji. 2020. "Insecticide Resistance Profiling of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae Populations in the Southern Senegal: Role of Target Sites and Metabolic Resistance Mechanisms" Genes 11, no. 12: 1403. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121403

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