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Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Docetaxel Treatment of Prostate Cancer: From Discovery to Implementation
Open AccessArticle

Gene‒Prostate-Specific-Antigen-Guided Personalized Screening for Prostate Cancer

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Yonghe Cardinal Hospital, New Taipei 23445, Taiwan
Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10055, Taiwan
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei 24205, Taiwan
Medical Education Department, Far Eastern Memory Hospital, New Taipei 22060, Taiwan
School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(9), 641;
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 16 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 24 August 2019
(1) Background: A simulation approach for prostate cancer (PrCa) with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test incorporating genetic information provides a new avenue for the development of personalized screening for PrCa. Going by the evidence-based principle, we use the simulation method to evaluate the effectiveness of mortality reduction resulting from PSA screening and its utilization using a personalized screening regime as opposed to a universal screening program. (2) Methods: A six-state (normal, over-detected, low-grade, and high-grade PrCa in pre-clinical phase, and low-grade and high-grade PrCa in clinical phase) Markov model with genetic and PSA information was developed after a systematic review of genetic variant studies and dose-dependent PSA studies. This gene‒PSA-guided model was used for personalized risk assessment and risk stratification. A computer-based simulated randomized controlled trial was designed to estimate the reduction of mortality achieved by three different screening methods, personalized screening, universal screening, and a non-screening group. (3) Results: The effectiveness of PrCa mortality reduction for a personalized screening program compared to a non-screening group (22% (9%‒33%)) was similar to that noted in the universal screening group (20% (7%‒21%). However, a personalized screening program could dispense with 26% of unnecessary PSA testing, and avoid over-detection by 2%. (4) Conclusions: Gene‒PSA-guided personalized screening for PrCa leads to fewer unnecessary PSA tests without compromising the benefits of mortality reduction (as happens with the universal screening program). View Full-Text
Keywords: effectiveness; prostate cancer; risk stratification; screening effectiveness; prostate cancer; risk stratification; screening
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Yang, T.-K.; Chuang, P.-C.; Yen, A. .-F.; Chen, H.-H.; Chen, S. .-S. Gene‒Prostate-Specific-Antigen-Guided Personalized Screening for Prostate Cancer. Genes 2019, 10, 641.

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