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Host Invasion by Pathogenic Amoebae: Epithelial Disruption by Parasite Proteins

1,2,†, 3,† and 4,*,†
1
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Mexico City 03940, Mexico
2
Departamento de Infectómica y Patogénesis Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mexico City 07360, Mexico
3
Coordinación General de Programas de Posgrado Multidisciplinarios, Programa de Doctorado Transdisciplinario en Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico para la Sociedad, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico City 07360, Mexico
4
Departamento de Infectómica y Patogénesis Molecular, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico City 07360, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Genes 2019, 10(8), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10080618
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Proteins in Parasitic Protozoa)
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Abstract

The epithelium represents the first and most extensive line of defence against pathogens, toxins and pollutant agents in humans. In general, pathogens have developed strategies to overcome this barrier and use it as an entrance to the organism. Entamoeba histolytica, Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba spp. are amoebae mainly responsible for intestinal dysentery, meningoencephalitis and keratitis, respectively. These amoebae cause significant morbidity and mortality rates. Thus, the identification, characterization and validation of molecules participating in host-parasite interactions can provide attractive targets to timely intervene disease progress. In this work, we present a compendium of the parasite adhesins, lectins, proteases, hydrolases, kinases, and others, that participate in key pathogenic events. Special focus is made for the analysis of assorted molecules and mechanisms involved in the interaction of the parasites with epithelial surface receptors, changes in epithelial junctional markers, implications on the barrier function, among others. This review allows the assessment of initial host-pathogen interaction, to correlate it to the potential of parasite invasion. View Full-Text
Keywords: epithelia; tight junctions; adherens junctions; desmosomes; Entamoeba histolytica; Naegleria fowleri; Acantamoeba spp. epithelia; tight junctions; adherens junctions; desmosomes; Entamoeba histolytica; Naegleria fowleri; Acantamoeba spp.
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Betanzos, A.; Bañuelos, C.; Orozco, E. Host Invasion by Pathogenic Amoebae: Epithelial Disruption by Parasite Proteins. Genes 2019, 10, 618.

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