Hemp is a Pb-tolerant and Pb-accumulating plant and the study of its tolerance mechanisms could facilitate the breeding of hemp with enhanced Pb tolerance and accumulation. In the present study, we took advantage of sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH) technology to study the difference in proteomics between the leaves of Pb-tolerant seed-type hemp variety Bamahuoma (BM) and the Pb-sensitive fiber-type hemp variety Yunma 1 (Y1) under Pb stress (3 g/kg soil). A total of 63 and 372 proteins differentially expressed under Pb stress relative to control conditions were identified with liquid chromatography electro spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in BM and Y1, respectively; with each of these proteins being classified into 14 categories. Hemp adapted to Pb stress by: accelerating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism; enhancing respiration, light absorption and light energy transfer; promoting assimilation of intercellular nitrogen (N) and carbon (C); eliminating reactive oxygen species; regulating stomatal development and closure; improving exchange of water and CO2
in leaves; promoting intercellular transport; preventing aggregation of unfolded proteins; degrading misfolded proteins; and increasing the transmembrane transport of ATP in chloroplasts. Our results provide an important reference protein and gene information for future molecular studies into the resistance and accumulation of Pb in hemp.
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