Next Article in Journal
An Entamoeba-Specific Mitosomal Membrane Protein with Potential Association to the Golgi Apparatus
Next Article in Special Issue
Ontogenetic and Pathogenetic Views on Somatic Chromosomal Mosaicism
Previous Article in Journal
Role of Autophagy-Related Gene atg22 in Developmental Process and Virulence of Fusarium oxysporum
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Cancer Aneuploidy Paradox: In the Light of Evolution
Open AccessPerspective

Micronuclei and Genome Chaos: Changing the System Inheritance

1
The Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2
Center for Molecular Medicine and Genomics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
3
Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(5), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10050366
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Heterogeneity and Human Diseases)
Micronuclei research has regained its popularity due to the realization that genome chaos, a rapid and massive genome re-organization under stress, represents a major common mechanism for punctuated cancer evolution. The molecular link between micronuclei and chromothripsis (one subtype of genome chaos which has a selection advantage due to the limited local scales of chromosome re-organization), has recently become a hot topic, especially since the link between micronuclei and immune activation has been identified. Many diverse molecular mechanisms have been illustrated to explain the causative relationship between micronuclei and genome chaos. However, the newly revealed complexity also causes confusion regarding the common mechanisms of micronuclei and their impact on genomic systems. To make sense of these diverse and even conflicting observations, the genome theory is applied in order to explain a stress mediated common mechanism of the generation of micronuclei and their contribution to somatic evolution by altering the original set of information and system inheritance in which cellular selection functions. To achieve this goal, a history and a current new trend of micronuclei research is briefly reviewed, followed by a review of arising key issues essential in advancing the field, including the re-classification of micronuclei and how to unify diverse molecular characterizations. The mechanistic understanding of micronuclei and their biological function is re-examined based on the genome theory. Specifically, such analyses propose that micronuclei represent an effective way in changing the system inheritance by altering the coding of chromosomes, which belongs to the common evolutionary mechanism of cellular adaptation and its trade-off. Further studies of the role of micronuclei in disease need to be focused on the behavior of the adaptive system rather than specific molecular mechanisms that generate micronuclei. This new model can clarify issues important to stress induced micronuclei and genome instability, the formation and maintenance of genomic information, and cellular evolution essential in many common and complex diseases such as cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer evolution; chromosome aberrations; chromosomal coding; fuzzy inheritance; genome chaos; genome instability; genome re-organization; micronuclei; micronuclei cluster; non-clonal chromosome aberrations or NCCAs; system inheritance cancer evolution; chromosome aberrations; chromosomal coding; fuzzy inheritance; genome chaos; genome instability; genome re-organization; micronuclei; micronuclei cluster; non-clonal chromosome aberrations or NCCAs; system inheritance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ye, C.J.; Sharpe, Z.; Alemara, S.; Mackenzie, S.; Liu, G.; Abdallah, B.; Horne, S.; Regan, S.; Heng, H.H. Micronuclei and Genome Chaos: Changing the System Inheritance. Genes 2019, 10, 366.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop