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Article

Evolutionary Insights of the ZW Sex Chromosomes in Snakes: A New Chapter Added by the Amazonian Puffing Snakes of the Genus Spilotes

1
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Av. André Araújo 2936, Petrópolis, Manaus CEP 69067-375, AM, Brazil
2
Institute for Applied Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2616, Australia
3
Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos 13565-905, SP, Brazil
4
Centro Amazônico de Herpetologia—Amazonian Center for Herpetology, Benevides 68795-000, PA, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(4), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10040288
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 31 March 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Genetics of Reptiles and Amphibians)
Amazonian puffing snakes (Spilotes; Colubridae) are snakes widely distributed in the Neotropical region. However, chromosomal data are scarce in this group and, when available, are only limited to karyotype description using conventional staining. In this paper, we focused on the process of karyotype evolution and trends for sex chromosomes in two Amazonian Puffer Snakes (S. pulllatus and S. sulphureus). We performed an extensive karyotype characterization using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches. The karyotype of S. sulphureus (presented here for the first time) exhibits a 2n = 36, similar to that previously described in S. pullatus. Both species have highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes, where the W chromosome is highly heterochromatic in S. pullatus but euchromatic in S. sulphureus. Both W chromosomes are homologous between these species as revealed by cross-species comparative genomic hybridization, even with heterogeneous distributions of several repetitive sequences across their genomes, including on the Z and on the W chromosomes. Our study provides evidence that W chromosomes in these two species have shared ancestry. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced snakes; sex chromosomes; heterochromatin; CGH; repeat accumulation; Amazonian snakes advanced snakes; sex chromosomes; heterochromatin; CGH; repeat accumulation; Amazonian snakes
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MDPI and ACS Style

F. Viana, P.; Ezaz, T.; de Bello Cioffi, M.; Jackson Almeida, B.; Feldberg, E. Evolutionary Insights of the ZW Sex Chromosomes in Snakes: A New Chapter Added by the Amazonian Puffing Snakes of the Genus Spilotes. Genes 2019, 10, 288. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10040288

AMA Style

F. Viana P, Ezaz T, de Bello Cioffi M, Jackson Almeida B, Feldberg E. Evolutionary Insights of the ZW Sex Chromosomes in Snakes: A New Chapter Added by the Amazonian Puffing Snakes of the Genus Spilotes. Genes. 2019; 10(4):288. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10040288

Chicago/Turabian Style

F. Viana, Patrik, Tariq Ezaz, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Breno Jackson Almeida, and Eliana Feldberg. 2019. "Evolutionary Insights of the ZW Sex Chromosomes in Snakes: A New Chapter Added by the Amazonian Puffing Snakes of the Genus Spilotes" Genes 10, no. 4: 288. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10040288

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