Next Article in Journal
In Vitro Gene Delivery in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells by Plasmid DNA-Wrapped Gold Nanoparticles
Next Article in Special Issue
Development and Validation of Sex-Specific Markers in Pelodiscus Sinensis Using Restriction Site-Associated DNA Sequencing
Previous Article in Journal
Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors as a Tool for Large Gene Delivery to the Retina
Previous Article in Special Issue
Satellite DNA Mapping in Pseudis fusca (Hylidae, Pseudinae) Provides New Insights into Sex Chromosome Evolution in Paradoxical Frogs
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Genes 2019, 10(4), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10040288

Evolutionary Insights of the ZW Sex Chromosomes in Snakes: A New Chapter Added by the Amazonian Puffing Snakes of the Genus Spilotes

1
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Av. André Araújo 2936, Petrópolis, Manaus CEP: 69067-375, AM, Brazil
2
Institute for Applied Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2616, Australia
3
Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, 13565-905, SP, Brazil
4
Centro Amazônico de Herpetologia—Amazonian Center for Herpetology, Benevides 68795-000, PA, Brazil, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 31 March 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Genetics of Reptiles and Amphibians)
PDF [1216 KB, uploaded 9 April 2019]

Abstract

Amazonian puffing snakes (Spilotes; Colubridae) are snakes widely distributed in the Neotropical region. However, chromosomal data are scarce in this group and, when available, are only limited to karyotype description using conventional staining. In this paper, we focused on the process of karyotype evolution and trends for sex chromosomes in two Amazonian Puffer Snakes (S. pulllatus and S. sulphureus). We performed an extensive karyotype characterization using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches. The karyotype of S. sulphureus (presented here for the first time) exhibits a 2n = 36, similar to that previously described in S. pullatus. Both species have highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes, where the W chromosome is highly heterochromatic in S. pullatus but euchromatic in S. sulphureus. Both W chromosomes are homologous between these species as revealed by cross-species comparative genomic hybridization, even with heterogeneous distributions of several repetitive sequences across their genomes, including on the Z and on the W chromosomes. Our study provides evidence that W chromosomes in these two species have shared ancestry.
Keywords: advanced snakes; sex chromosomes; heterochromatin; CGH; repeat accumulation; Amazonian snakes advanced snakes; sex chromosomes; heterochromatin; CGH; repeat accumulation; Amazonian snakes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Viana, P.F.; Ezaz, T.; de Bello Cioffi, M.; Jackson Almeida, B.; Feldberg, E. Evolutionary Insights of the ZW Sex Chromosomes in Snakes: A New Chapter Added by the Amazonian Puffing Snakes of the Genus Spilotes. Genes 2019, 10, 288.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top