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Genes 2019, 10(4), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10040257

DNA Methylation Reprogramming during Mammalian Development

1,2,3 and 1,2,3,*
1
Department of Epigenetics and Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1808 Park Road 1C, Smithville, TX 78957, USA
2
Center for Cancer Epigenetics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957, USA
3
Program in Genetics and Epigenetics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of DNA Methyltransferases in the Epigenome)
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Abstract

DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) is a major form of DNA modification in the mammalian genome that plays critical roles in chromatin structure and gene expression. In general, DNA methylation is stably maintained in somatic tissues. However, DNA methylation patterns and levels show dynamic changes during development. Specifically, the genome undergoes two waves of global demethylation and remethylation for the purpose of producing the next generation. The first wave occurs in the germline, initiated with the erasure of global methylation in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and completed with the establishment of sex-specific methylation patterns during later stages of germ cell development. The second wave occurs after fertilization, including the erasure of most methylation marks inherited from the gametes and the subsequent establishment of the embryonic methylation pattern. The two waves of DNA methylation reprogramming involve both distinct and shared mechanisms. In this review article, we provide an overview of the key reprogramming events, focusing on the important players in these processes, including DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of 5mC dioxygenases. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA methylation; embryogenesis; germ cells; DNMTs; TETs DNA methylation; embryogenesis; germ cells; DNMTs; TETs
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Zeng, Y.; Chen, T. DNA Methylation Reprogramming during Mammalian Development. Genes 2019, 10, 257.

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