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Early Diagnosis in Prader–Willi Syndrome Reduces Obesity and Associated Co-Morbidities

Division of Genetics and Genomic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92868, USA
Children’s Hospital of Orange County, Orange, CA 92868, USA
Health Informatics Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Department of Pediatrics, Loma Linda University Medical School, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences and Pediatrics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(11), 898;
Received: 28 September 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Prader-Willi syndrome)
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is an imprinting genetic disorder characterized by lack of expression of genes on the paternal chromosome 15q11–q13 region. Growth hormone (GH) replacement positively influences stature and body composition in PWS. Our hypothesis was that early diagnosis delays onset of obesity in PWS. We studied 352 subjects with PWS, recruited from the NIH Rare Disease Clinical Research Network, to determine if age at diagnosis, ethnicity, gender, and PWS molecular class influenced the age they first become heavy, as determined by their primary care providers, and the age they first developed an increased appetite and began seeking food. The median ages that children with PWS became heavy were 10 years, 6 years and 4 years for age at diagnosis < 1 year, between 1 and 3 years, and greater than 3 years of age, respectively. The age of diagnosis and ethnicity were significant factors influencing when PWS children first became heavy (p < 0.01), however gender and the PWS molecular class had no influence. Early diagnosis delayed the onset of becoming heavy in individuals with PWS, permitting early GH and other treatment, thus reducing the risk of obesity-associated co-morbidities. Non-white individuals had an earlier onset of becoming heavy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Prader–Willi syndrome; age diagnosis; obesity; deletion; uniparental disomy Prader–Willi syndrome; age diagnosis; obesity; deletion; uniparental disomy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kimonis, V.E.; Tamura, R.; Gold, J.-A.; Patel, N.; Surampalli, A.; Manazir, J.; Miller, J.L.; Roof, E.; Dykens, E.; Butler, M.G.; Driscoll, D.J. Early Diagnosis in Prader–Willi Syndrome Reduces Obesity and Associated Co-Morbidities. Genes 2019, 10, 898.

AMA Style

Kimonis VE, Tamura R, Gold J-A, Patel N, Surampalli A, Manazir J, Miller JL, Roof E, Dykens E, Butler MG, Driscoll DJ. Early Diagnosis in Prader–Willi Syndrome Reduces Obesity and Associated Co-Morbidities. Genes. 2019; 10(11):898.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kimonis, Virginia E., Roy Tamura, June-Anne Gold, Nidhi Patel, Abhilasha Surampalli, Javeria Manazir, Jennifer L. Miller, Elizabeth Roof, Elisabeth Dykens, Merlin G. Butler, and Daniel J. Driscoll. 2019. "Early Diagnosis in Prader–Willi Syndrome Reduces Obesity and Associated Co-Morbidities" Genes 10, no. 11: 898.

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