Chronic Viral Liver Diseases: Approaching the Liver Using T Cell Receptor-Mediated Gene Technologies
Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 14152 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 14152 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
Cluster of Excellence RESIST (EXC 2155), Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
Centre for Individualized Infection Medicine (CiiM), 30625 Hannover, Germany
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 14152 Stockholm, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061471
Received: 6 May 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 16 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TCR Gene Therapy: Challenges, Opportunities and Future Directions)
Chronic infection with viral hepatitis is a major risk factor for liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). One major contributing factor to the chronicity is the dysfunction of virus-specific T cell immunity. T cells engineered to express virus-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) may be a therapeutic option to improve host antiviral responses and have demonstrated clinical success against virus-associated tumours. This review aims to give an overview of TCRs identified from viral hepatitis research and discuss how translational lessons learned from cancer immunotherapy can be applied to the field. TCR isolation pipelines, liver homing signals, cell type options, as well as safety considerations will be discussed herein.