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Open AccessReview

Hypoxia-Driven Immune Escape in the Tumor Microenvironment

by 1,†, 1,† and 2,*
1
Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster Immunology Research Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
2
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster Immunology Research Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2020, 9(4), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040992
Received: 6 March 2020 / Revised: 5 April 2020 / Accepted: 13 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology of Cell Death in Cancer Immunotherapy)
The tumor microenvironment is a complex ecosystem comprised of many different cell types, abnormal vasculature and immunosuppressive cytokines. The irregular growth kinetics with which tumors grow leads to increased oxygen consumption and, in turn, hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia has been associated with poor clinical outcome, increased tumor heterogeneity, emergence of resistant clones and evasion of immune detection. Additionally, hypoxia-driven cell death pathways have traditionally been thought of as tolerogenic processes. However, as researchers working in the field of immunotherapy continue to investigate and unveil new types of immunogenic cell death (ICD), it has become clear that, in some instances, hypoxia may actually induce ICD within a tumor. In this review, we will discuss hypoxia-driven immune escape that drives poor prognostic outcomes, the ability of hypoxia to induce ICD and potential therapeutic targets amongst hypoxia pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia; tumor microenvironment; immunogenic cell death; therapeutics hypoxia; tumor microenvironment; immunogenic cell death; therapeutics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vito, A.; El-Sayes, N.; Mossman, K. Hypoxia-Driven Immune Escape in the Tumor Microenvironment. Cells 2020, 9, 992. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040992

AMA Style

Vito A, El-Sayes N, Mossman K. Hypoxia-Driven Immune Escape in the Tumor Microenvironment. Cells. 2020; 9(4):992. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040992

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vito, Alyssa; El-Sayes, Nader; Mossman, Karen. 2020. "Hypoxia-Driven Immune Escape in the Tumor Microenvironment" Cells 9, no. 4: 992. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040992

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