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Dissecting Mechanisms of Melanoma Resistance to BRAF and MEK Inhibitors Revealed Genetic and Non-Genetic Patient- and Drug-Specific Alterations and Remarkable Phenotypic Plasticity
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Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells and Cutaneous Melanoma

1
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia 25123, Italy
2
Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Medical Oncology, University of Brescia at ASST-Spedali Civili, Brescia 25123, Italy
3
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(2), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020417
Received: 24 December 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 11 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Cutaneous Melanoma)
The prognosis of metastatic melanoma (MM) patients has remained poor for a long time. However, the recent introduction of effective target therapies (BRAF and MEK inhibitors for BRAFV600-mutated MM) and immunotherapies (anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1) has significantly improved the survival of MM patients. Notably, all these responses are highly dependent on the fitness of the host immune system, including the innate compartment. Among immune cells involved in cancer immunity, properly activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) exert an important role, bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses and directly eliminating cancer cells. A distinctive feature of pDCs is the production of high amount of type I Interferon (I-IFN), through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 9 signaling pathway activation. However, published data indicate that melanoma-associated escape mechanisms are in place to hijack pDC functions. We have recently reported that pDC recruitment is recurrent in the early phases of melanoma, but the entire pDC compartment collapses over melanoma progression. Here, we summarize recent advances on pDC biology and function within the context of melanoma immunity.
Keywords: plasmacytoid dendritic cells; cutaneous melanoma; TLR plasmacytoid dendritic cells; cutaneous melanoma; TLR
MDPI and ACS Style

Monti, M.; Consoli, F.; Vescovi, R.; Bugatti, M.; Vermi, W. Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells and Cutaneous Melanoma. Cells 2020, 9, 417.

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