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Review

NETs Are Double-Edged Swords with the Potential to Aggravate or Resolve Periodontal Inflammation

1
Department of Biosciences, Vascular & Exercise Biology Unit, University of Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
2
Clinic of Operative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, Saarland University, 66424 Homburg, Germany
3
Department of Internal Medicine 3—Rheumatology and Immunology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2020, 9(12), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122614
Received: 12 November 2020 / Revised: 1 December 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 5 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NET Formation in Health and Disease)
Periodontitis is a general term for diseases characterised by inflammatory destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, gradual destruction of the marginal periodontal ligament and resorption of alveolar bone. Early-onset periodontitis is due to disturbed neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and clearance. Indeed, mutations that inactivate the cysteine proteases cathepsin C result in the massive periodontal damage seen in patients with deficient NET formation. In contrast, exaggerated NET formation due to polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) hyper-responsiveness drives the pathology of late-onset periodontitis by damaging and ulcerating the gingival epithelium and retarding epithelial healing. Despite the gingival regeneration, periodontitis progression ends with almost complete loss of the periodontal ligament and subsequent tooth loss. Thus, NETs help to maintain periodontal health, and their dysregulation, either insufficiency or surplus, causes heavy periodontal pathology and edentulism. View Full-Text
Keywords: NET insufficiency; PMN hyper-responsiveness; ulceration; crevicular occlusion; exaggerated immune response NET insufficiency; PMN hyper-responsiveness; ulceration; crevicular occlusion; exaggerated immune response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vitkov, L.; Minnich, B.; Knopf, J.; Schauer, C.; Hannig, M.; Herrmann, M. NETs Are Double-Edged Swords with the Potential to Aggravate or Resolve Periodontal Inflammation. Cells 2020, 9, 2614. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122614

AMA Style

Vitkov L, Minnich B, Knopf J, Schauer C, Hannig M, Herrmann M. NETs Are Double-Edged Swords with the Potential to Aggravate or Resolve Periodontal Inflammation. Cells. 2020; 9(12):2614. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122614

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vitkov, Ljubomir, Bernd Minnich, Jasmin Knopf, Christine Schauer, Matthias Hannig, and Martin Herrmann. 2020. "NETs Are Double-Edged Swords with the Potential to Aggravate or Resolve Periodontal Inflammation" Cells 9, no. 12: 2614. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122614

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