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Review

Cardiovascular Manifestations of COVID-19 Infection

by 1 and 1,2,*
1
Center for Translational Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
2
Department of Pharmacology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112508
Received: 28 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 18 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
SARS-CoV-2 induced the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, the most significant medical challenge in the last century. COVID-19 is associated with notable increases in morbidity and death worldwide. Preexisting conditions, like cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, are correlated with higher severity and a significant increase in the fatality rate of COVID-19. COVID-19 induces multiple cardiovascular complexities, such as cardiac arrest, myocarditis, acute myocardial injury, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, cardiogenic shock, arrhythmias and, subsequently, heart failure (HF). The precise mechanisms of how SARS-CoV-2 may cause myocardial complications are not clearly understood. The proposed mechanisms of myocardial injury based on current knowledge are the direct viral entry of the virus and damage to the myocardium, systemic inflammation, hypoxia, cytokine storm, interferon-mediated immune response, and plaque destabilization. The virus enters the cell through the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor and plays a central function in the virus’s pathogenesis. A systematic understanding of cardiovascular effects of SARS-CoV2 is needed to develop novel therapeutic tools to target the virus-induced cardiac damage as a potential strategy to minimize permanent damage to the cardiovascular system and reduce the morbidity. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of COVID-19 mediated damage to the cardiovascular system. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; angiotensin converting enzyme-2; cardiovascular disease; myocardial injury; cytokine storm and inflammation COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; angiotensin converting enzyme-2; cardiovascular disease; myocardial injury; cytokine storm and inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Magadum, A.; Kishore, R. Cardiovascular Manifestations of COVID-19 Infection. Cells 2020, 9, 2508. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112508

AMA Style

Magadum A, Kishore R. Cardiovascular Manifestations of COVID-19 Infection. Cells. 2020; 9(11):2508. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112508

Chicago/Turabian Style

Magadum, Ajit, and Raj Kishore. 2020. "Cardiovascular Manifestations of COVID-19 Infection" Cells 9, no. 11: 2508. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112508

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