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Cell Death in the Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy

Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Cancer Center, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 205 South Orange Ave, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
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Cells 2020, 9(10), 2207; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9102207
Received: 7 September 2020 / Revised: 26 September 2020 / Accepted: 26 September 2020 / Published: 29 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology of Cell Death in Cancer Immunotherapy)
The physiological fate of cells that die by apoptosis is their prompt and efficient removal by efferocytosis. During these processes, apoptotic cells release intracellular constituents that include purine nucleotides, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that induce migration and chemo-attraction of phagocytes as well as mitogens and extracellular membrane-bound vesicles that contribute to apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation and alteration of the extracellular matrix and the vascular network. Additionally, during efferocytosis, phagocytic cells produce a number of anti-inflammatory and resolving factors, and, together with apoptotic cells, efferocytic events have a homeostatic function that regulates tissue repair. These homeostatic functions are dysregulated in cancers, where, aforementioned events, if not properly controlled, can lead to cancer progression and immune escape. Here, we summarize evidence that apoptosis and efferocytosis are exploited in cancer, as well as discuss current translation and clinical efforts to harness signals from dying cells into therapeutic strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; efferocytosis; compensatory proliferation; immune evasion; cancer; phosphatidylserine (PS) apoptosis; efferocytosis; compensatory proliferation; immune evasion; cancer; phosphatidylserine (PS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gadiyar, V.; Lahey, K.C.; Calianese, D.; Devoe, C.; Mehta, D.; Bono, K.; Desind, S.; Davra, V.; Birge, R.B. Cell Death in the Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy. Cells 2020, 9, 2207. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9102207

AMA Style

Gadiyar V, Lahey KC, Calianese D, Devoe C, Mehta D, Bono K, Desind S, Davra V, Birge RB. Cell Death in the Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy. Cells. 2020; 9(10):2207. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9102207

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gadiyar, Varsha, Kevin C. Lahey, David Calianese, Connor Devoe, Dhriti Mehta, Kristy Bono, Samuel Desind, Viralkumar Davra, and Raymond B. Birge 2020. "Cell Death in the Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy" Cells 9, no. 10: 2207. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9102207

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