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Open AccessArticle

Transcriptional Suppression of the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Cytokine Release in Primary Macrophages by Low-Dose Anthracyclines

1
Department of Internal Medicine IV (Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Diseases), Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, 07747 Jena, Germany
2
The Center for Sepsis Control and Care (CSCC), Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, 07747 Jena, Germany
3
Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9010079
Received: 9 November 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 25 December 2019 / Published: 28 December 2019
Tissue-resident macrophages play critical roles in controlling homeostasis, tissue repair, and immunity. Inflammatory macrophages can sustain tissue damage and promote the development of fibrosis during infections and sterile tissue injury. The NLRP3 inflammasome and its effector cytokine IL-1β have been identified as important mediators of fibrosis. Epirubicin, an anthracycline topoisomerase II inhibitor, has been reported to inhibit myeloid inflammatory cytokine production and to promote tissue tolerance following bacterial infection. We investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of epirubicin on the NLRP3 inflammasome and TLR4-mediated inflammation in PMA-primed THP-1 and in primary human peritoneal macrophages (PM). Low-dose epirubicin at non-cytotoxic doses downregulated NLRP3 inflammasome components and reduced the release of cleaved caspase-1, bioactive IL-1β, and TNF-α following NLRP3 activation in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, epirubicin attenuated inflammatory macrophage responses after TLR4 and TLR2 ligation. These anti-inflammatory effects were not mediated by the induction of autophagy or altered MAPK signaling, but as the result of a global transcriptional suppression of LPS-dependent genes. Epirubicin-treated macrophages displayed reduced acetylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac), suggesting anti-inflammatory epigenetic imprinting as one underlying mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; macrophages; innate immunity; innate immune memory; histones; epigenetics inflammation; macrophages; innate immunity; innate immune memory; histones; epigenetics
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Köse-Vogel, N.; Stengel, S.; Gardey, E.; Kirchberger-Tolstik, T.; Reuken, P.A.; Stallmach, A.; Bruns, T. Transcriptional Suppression of the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Cytokine Release in Primary Macrophages by Low-Dose Anthracyclines. Cells 2020, 9, 79.

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