Next Article in Journal
Physiology, Pathology and Regeneration of Salivary Glands
Next Article in Special Issue
RNA Sequencing of H3N2 Influenza Virus-Infected Human Nasal Epithelial Cells from Multiple Subjects Reveals Molecular Pathways Associated with Tissue Injury and Complications
Previous Article in Journal
Lipid Droplets in Disease
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influenza A Hemagglutinin Passage Bias Sites and Host Specificity Mutations
Open AccessArticle

Insights into Early Recovery from Influenza Pneumonia by Spatial and Temporal Quantification of Putative Lung Regenerating Cells and by Lung Proteomics

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117545, Singapore
2
Department of Otolaryngology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
3
Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 138673, Singapore
4
Department of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore
5
Department of Pathology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119074, Singapore
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Cells 2019, 8(9), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8090975
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 21 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 26 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Pathogen Interactions During Influenza Virus Infection)
During influenza pneumonia, the alveolar epithelial cells of the lungs are targeted by the influenza virus. The distal airway stem cells (DASCs) and proliferating alveolar type II (AT2) cells are reported to be putative lung repair cells. However, their relative spatial and temporal distribution is still unknown during influenza-induced acute lung injury. Here, we investigated the distribution of these cells, and concurrently performed global proteomic analysis of the infected lungs to elucidate and link the cellular and molecular events during influenza pneumonia recovery. BALB/c mice were infected with a sub-lethal dose of influenza H1N1 virus. From 5 to 25 days post-infection (dpi), mouse lungs were subjected to histopathologic and immunofluorescence analysis to probe for global distribution of lung repair cells (using P63 and KRT5 markers for DASCs; SPC and PCNA markers for AT2 cells). At 7 and 15 dpi, infected mouse lungs were also subjected to protein mass spectrometry for relative protein quantification. DASCs appeared only in the damaged area of the lung from 7 dpi onwards, reaching a peak at 21 dpi, and persisted until 25 dpi. However, no differentiation of DASCs to AT2 cells was observed by 25 dpi. In contrast, AT2 cells began proliferating from 7 dpi to replenish their population, especially within the boundary area between damaged and undamaged areas of the infected lungs. Mass spectrometry and gene ontology analysis revealed prominent innate immune responses at 7 dpi, which shifted towards adaptive immune responses by 15 dpi. Hence, proliferating AT2 cells but not DASCs contribute to AT2 cell regeneration following transition from innate to adaptive immune responses during the early phase of recovery from influenza pneumonia up to 25 dpi. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; pneumonia; lung regeneration; stem cells; comparative quantification; P63; KRT5; proliferating alveolar type II cells; proteomics influenza; pneumonia; lung regeneration; stem cells; comparative quantification; P63; KRT5; proliferating alveolar type II cells; proteomics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ong, J.W.J.; Tan, K.S.; Ler, S.G.; Gunaratne, J.; Choi, H.; Seet, J.E.; Chow, V. .-K. Insights into Early Recovery from Influenza Pneumonia by Spatial and Temporal Quantification of Putative Lung Regenerating Cells and by Lung Proteomics. Cells 2019, 8, 975.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop