Since their discovery 20 years ago, microRNAs have been related to posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in major cardiac physiological and pathological processes. We know now that cardiac muscle phenotypes are tightly regulated by multiple noncoding RNA species to maintain cardiac homeostasis. Upon stress or various pathological conditions, this class of non-coding RNAs has been found to modulate different cardiac pathological conditions, such as contractility, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, hypertrophy, and inherited cardiomyopathies. This review summarizes and updates microRNAs playing a role in the different processes underlying the pathogenic phenotypes of cardiac muscle and highlights their potential role as disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
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