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Candida albicans-Cell Interactions Activate Innate Immune Defense in Human Palate Epithelial Primary Cells via Nitric Oxide (NO) and β-Defensin 2 (hBD-2)

1
Department of Surgery, Stomatology, Pathology and Radiology, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, 17012-901 Bauru, SP, Brazil
2
Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, 17012-901 Bauru, SP, Brazil
3
Department of Biological Sciences, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, 17012-901 Bauru, SP, Brazil
4
Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, 03178-200 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(7), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070707
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
The presence of Candida albicans in the biofilm underlying the dental prosthesis is related to denture stomatitis (DS), an inflammatory reaction of the oral mucosa. The oral epithelium, a component of the innate immune response, has the ability to react to fungal invasion. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of viable C. albicans on the apoptosis, nitric oxide (NO) production, and β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) expression and production of human palate epithelial cells (HPECs). We further determined whether or not these effects were correlated with fungal invasion of epithelial cells. Interaction between HPEC primary culture and C. albicans was obtained through either direct or indirect cell–cell contact with a supernatant from a hyphal fungus. We found that the hyphae supernatants were sufficient to induce slight HPEC apoptosis, which occurred prior to the activation of the specific mechanisms of epithelial defense. The epithelial defense responses were found to occur via NO and antimicrobial peptide hBD-2 production only during direct contact between C. albicans and HPECs and coincided with the fungus’s intraepithelial invasion. However, although the hBD-2 levels remained constant in the HPEC supernatants over time, the NO release and hBD-2 gene expression were reduced at a later time (10 h), indicating that the epithelial defense capacity against the fungal invasion was not maintained in later phases. This aspect of the immune response was associated with increased epithelial invasion and apoptosis maintenance. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal biofilm; oral epithelium; apoptosis; β-defensin; epithelial defense fungal biofilm; oral epithelium; apoptosis; β-defensin; epithelial defense
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Casaroto, A.R.; da Silva, R.A.; Salmeron, S.; Rezende, M.L.R.; Dionísio, T.J.; Santos, C.F.; Pinke, K.H.; Klingbeil, M.F.G.; Salomão, P.A.; Lopes, M.M.R.; Lara, V.S. Candida albicans-Cell Interactions Activate Innate Immune Defense in Human Palate Epithelial Primary Cells via Nitric Oxide (NO) and β-Defensin 2 (hBD-2). Cells 2019, 8, 707.

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