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Long Noncoding RNA HCP5, a Hybrid HLA Class I Endogenous Retroviral Gene: Structure, Expression, and Disease Associations

1
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, UWA Medical School, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
2
Department of Molecular Life Science, Division of Basic Medical Science and Molecular Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara 259-1193, Japan
Cells 2019, 8(5), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050480
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in Health and Disease)
The HCP5 RNA gene (NCBI ID: 10866) is located centromeric of the HLA-B gene and between the MICA and MICB genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region. It is a human species-specific gene that codes for a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), composed mostly of an ancient ancestral endogenous antisense 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR, and part of the internal pol antisense sequence of endogenous retrovirus (ERV) type 16 linked to a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I promoter and leader sequence at the 5′-end. Since its discovery in 1993, many disease association and gene expression studies have shown that HCP5 is a regulatory lncRNA involved in adaptive and innate immune responses and associated with the promotion of some autoimmune diseases and cancers. The gene sequence acts as a genomic anchor point for binding transcription factors, enhancers, and chromatin remodeling enzymes in the regulation of transcription and chromatin folding. The HCP5 antisense retroviral transcript also interacts with regulatory microRNA and immune and cellular checkpoints in cancers suggesting its potential as a drug target for novel antitumor therapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: HCP5; lncRNA; MHC; HLA; human endogenous retrovirus (HERV); cancer; autoimmune diseases; competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA); human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); human papillomavirus (HPV) HCP5; lncRNA; MHC; HLA; human endogenous retrovirus (HERV); cancer; autoimmune diseases; competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA); human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); human papillomavirus (HPV)
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Kulski, J.K. Long Noncoding RNA HCP5, a Hybrid HLA Class I Endogenous Retroviral Gene: Structure, Expression, and Disease Associations. Cells 2019, 8, 480.

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