RNA gene (NCBI ID: 10866) is located centromeric of the HLA-B
gene and between the MICA
genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region. It is a human species-specific gene that codes for a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), composed mostly of an ancient ancestral endogenous antisense 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR, and part of the internal pol
antisense sequence of endogenous retrovirus (ERV) type 16 linked to a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I promoter and leader sequence at the 5′-end. Since its discovery in 1993, many disease association and gene expression studies have shown that HCP5
is a regulatory lncRNA involved in adaptive and innate immune responses and associated with the promotion of some autoimmune diseases and cancers. The gene sequence acts as a genomic anchor point for binding transcription factors, enhancers, and chromatin remodeling enzymes in the regulation of transcription and chromatin folding. The HCP5
antisense retroviral transcript also interacts with regulatory microRNA and immune and cellular checkpoints in cancers suggesting its potential as a drug target for novel antitumor therapeutics.
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