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Cells 2019, 8(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8020154

Role of Exosomes in the Regulation of T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses and in Autoimmune Disease

1
Immunity, Cancer & Stem Cells Group, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Campus San Francisco Sq., University of Zaragoza and Aragón Health Research Institute (IIS Aragón), E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Campus San Francisco Sq., University of Zaragoza and Aragón Health Research Institute (IIS Aragón), E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain
3
Centre for Cell Death, Cancer and Inflammation (CCCI), UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, Gower St, Bloomsbury, London WC1E 6BT, UK
4
Immunology Department, Lozano Blesa Clinical Hospital, and Aragón Health Research Institute (IIS Aragón), E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exosomes and Extracellular Vesicles in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

T-cell mediated immune responses should be regulated to avoid the development of autoimmune or chronic inflammatory diseases. Several mechanisms have been described to regulate this process, namely death of overactivated T cells by cytokine deprivation, suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg), induction of expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, or activation-induced cell death (AICD). In addition, activated T cells release membrane microvesicles called exosomes during these regulatory processes. In this review, we revise the role of exosome secretion in the different pathways of immune regulation described to date and its importance in the prevention or development of autoimmune disease. The expression of membrane-bound death ligands on the surface of exosomes during AICD or the more recently described transfer of miRNA or even DNA inside T-cell exosomes is a molecular mechanism that will be analyzed. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; extracellular vesicles; immune regulation; autoimmunity exosomes; extracellular vesicles; immune regulation; autoimmunity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Anel, A.; Gallego-Lleyda, A.; de Miguel, D.; Naval, J.; Martínez-Lostao, L. Role of Exosomes in the Regulation of T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses and in Autoimmune Disease. Cells 2019, 8, 154.

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