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Article

Biofabrication of Cell-Derived Nanovesicles: A Potential Alternative to Extracellular Vesicles for Regenerative Medicine

1
Laboratory of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Department of Clinical Chemistry and Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
Circulatory Health Laboratory, Regenerative Medicine Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, University Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121509
Received: 1 November 2019 / Revised: 18 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Applications of Extracellular Vesicles)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of intercellular communication by transferring functional biomolecules from their originating cells to recipient cells. This intrinsic ability has gained EVs increased scientific interest in their use as a direct therapeutic in the field of regenerative medicine or as vehicles for drug delivery. EVs derived from stem cells or progenitor cells can act as paracrine mediators to promote repair and regeneration of damaged tissues. Despite substantial research efforts into EVs for various applications, their use remains limited by the lack of highly efficient and scalable production methods. Here, we present the biofabrication of cell-derived nanovesicles (NVs) as a scalable, efficient, and cost-effective production alternative to EVs. We demonstrate that NVs have a comparable size and morphology as EVs, but lack standard EV (surface) markers. Additionally, in vitro uptake experiments show that human fetal cardiac fibroblast, endothelial cells, and cardiomyocyte progenitor cells internalize NVs. We observed that cardiac progenitor cell-derived NVs and EVs are capable of activating mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MAPK1/2)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and that both NVs and EVs derived from A431 and HEK293 cells can functionally deliver Cre-recombinase mRNA or protein to other cells. These observations indicate that NVs may have similar functional properties as EVs. Therefore, NVs have the potential to be applied for therapeutic delivery and regenerative medicine purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; biofabrication; cell-derived nanovesicles; therapeutic delivery; regenerative medicine extracellular vesicles; biofabrication; cell-derived nanovesicles; therapeutic delivery; regenerative medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ilahibaks, N.F.; Lei, Z.; Mol, E.A.; Deshantri, A.K.; Jiang, L.; Schiffelers, R.M.; Vader, P.; Sluijter, J.P.G. Biofabrication of Cell-Derived Nanovesicles: A Potential Alternative to Extracellular Vesicles for Regenerative Medicine. Cells 2019, 8, 1509. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121509

AMA Style

Ilahibaks NF, Lei Z, Mol EA, Deshantri AK, Jiang L, Schiffelers RM, Vader P, Sluijter JPG. Biofabrication of Cell-Derived Nanovesicles: A Potential Alternative to Extracellular Vesicles for Regenerative Medicine. Cells. 2019; 8(12):1509. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121509

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ilahibaks, Nazma F., Zhiyong Lei, Emma A. Mol, Anil K. Deshantri, Linglei Jiang, Raymond M. Schiffelers, Pieter Vader, and Joost P.G. Sluijter. 2019. "Biofabrication of Cell-Derived Nanovesicles: A Potential Alternative to Extracellular Vesicles for Regenerative Medicine" Cells 8, no. 12: 1509. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121509

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