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Reproductive Toxicity of Furfural Acetone in Meloidogyne incognita and Caenorhabditis elegans

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and National Engineering Research Center of Microbial Pesticides, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Academic Editor: Guy A. Caldwell
Cells 2022, 11(3), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030401
Received: 9 December 2021 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 22 January 2022 / Published: 25 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Reproductive Cells and Development)
Furfural acetone (FAc) is a promising alternative to currently available nematicides, and it exhibits equivalent control efficiency on root-knot nematodes with avermectin in fields. However, its effect on the reproduction of root-knot nematode is poorly understood. In this study, the natural metabolite FAc was found to exhibit reproductive toxicity on Meloidogyne incognita and Caenorhabditis elegans. The number of germ cells of C. elegans was observed to decrease after exposure to FAc, with a reduction of 59.9% at a dose of 200 mg/L. FAc in various concentrations induced the germ-cell apoptosis of C. elegans, with an increase over six-fold in the number of apoptotic germ cells at 200 mg/L. These findings suggested that FAc decreased the brood size of nematode by inducing germ-cell apoptosis. Moreover, FAc-induced germ-cell apoptosis was suppressed by the mutation of gene hus-1, clk-2, cep-1, egl-1, ced-3, ced-4, or ced-9. The expression of genes spo-11, cep-1, and egl-1 in C. elegans was increased significantly after FAc treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that nematode exposure to FAc might inflict DNA damage through protein SPO-11, activate CEP-1 and EGL-1, and induce the core apoptosis pathway to cause germ-cell apoptosis, resulting in decreased brood size of C. elegans. View Full-Text
Keywords: furfural acetone; Meloidogyne incognita; Caenorhabditis elegans; reproductive toxicity; germ-cell apoptosis furfural acetone; Meloidogyne incognita; Caenorhabditis elegans; reproductive toxicity; germ-cell apoptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, W.; Yang, X.; Xue, H.; Huang, D.; Cai, M.; Huang, F.; Zheng, L.; Yu, Z.; Zhang, J. Reproductive Toxicity of Furfural Acetone in Meloidogyne incognita and Caenorhabditis elegans. Cells 2022, 11, 401. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030401

AMA Style

Cheng W, Yang X, Xue H, Huang D, Cai M, Huang F, Zheng L, Yu Z, Zhang J. Reproductive Toxicity of Furfural Acetone in Meloidogyne incognita and Caenorhabditis elegans. Cells. 2022; 11(3):401. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030401

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cheng, Wanli, Xue Yang, Hua Xue, Dian Huang, Minmin Cai, Feng Huang, Longyu Zheng, Ziniu Yu, and Jibin Zhang. 2022. "Reproductive Toxicity of Furfural Acetone in Meloidogyne incognita and Caenorhabditis elegans" Cells 11, no. 3: 401. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030401

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