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Review

Mast Cells in Immune-Mediated Cholangitis and Cholangiocarcinoma

1
Laboratorio de Inmunología Experimental y Regulación de la Inflamación Hepato-intestinal, UBIMED, FES Iztacala, UNAM, Tlalnepantla de Baz 54090, State of Mexico, Mexico
2
Endoscopy Division, Boston Scientific Corporation, 200 Boston Scientific Way, Marlborough, MA 01752-1234, USA
3
Aspen Woods Clinic, Calgary, AB T3H 0V5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yoshimichi Okayama
Cells 2022, 11(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030375
Received: 17 December 2021 / Revised: 13 January 2022 / Accepted: 17 January 2022 / Published: 22 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Collection Mast Cells in Health and Diseases)
Cholestasis, which is impaired bile flow from the liver into the intestine, can be caused by cholangitis and/or bile duct obstruction. Cholangitis can arise from bacterial infections and cholelithiasis, however, immune-mediated cholangitis in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized by a strong immune response targeting the biliary epithelial cells (BECs). Persistent biliary inflammation further represents a risk for biliary neoplasia, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) by driving chronic cellular stress in the BECs. Currently, immune-mediated cholangitis is considered a Th1-Th17-dominant disease, however, the presence of Th2-related mast cells (MCs) in tissue samples from PBC, PSC and CCA patients has been described, showing that these MCs are active players in these diseases. Here, we reviewed and discussed experimental and clinical data supporting a pro-fibrotic role for MCs in immune-mediated cholangitis as well as their participation in supporting tumor growth acting as angiogenesis promoters. Thus, although MCs have classically been identified as downstream effectors of Th2 responses in allergies and parasitic infections, evidence suggests that these MCs are relevant players in biliary inflammation and neoplasia. The availability of strategies to prevent MCs’ activation represents a therapeutic opportunity in biliary diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: mast cells; cholangitis; cholangiocarcinoma; PBC; PSC; liver fibrosis mast cells; cholangitis; cholangiocarcinoma; PBC; PSC; liver fibrosis
MDPI and ACS Style

González, M.I.; Vannan, D.T.; Eksteen, B.; Flores-Sotelo, I.; Reyes, J.L. Mast Cells in Immune-Mediated Cholangitis and Cholangiocarcinoma. Cells 2022, 11, 375. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030375

AMA Style

González MI, Vannan DT, Eksteen B, Flores-Sotelo I, Reyes JL. Mast Cells in Immune-Mediated Cholangitis and Cholangiocarcinoma. Cells. 2022; 11(3):375. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030375

Chicago/Turabian Style

González, Marisol I., Danielle T. Vannan, Bertus Eksteen, Irán Flores-Sotelo, and José L. Reyes. 2022. "Mast Cells in Immune-Mediated Cholangitis and Cholangiocarcinoma" Cells 11, no. 3: 375. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030375

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