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Review

Methodological Progress of Stereology in Cardiac Research and Its Application to Normal and Pathological Heart Development

by 1,2,3,* and 1,2
1
Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
2
Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), 30625 Hannover, Germany
3
Research Core Unit Electron Microscopy, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anindita Das and Arun Samidurai
Cells 2022, 11(13), 2032; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11132032
Received: 2 June 2022 / Revised: 20 June 2022 / Accepted: 24 June 2022 / Published: 26 June 2022
Design-based stereology is the gold standard for obtaining unbiased quantitative morphological data on volume, surface area, and length, as well as the number of tissues, cells or organelles. In cardiac research, the introduction of a stereological method to unbiasedly estimate the number of cardiomyocytes has considerably increased the use of stereology. Since its original description, various modifications to this method have been described. A particular field in which this method has been employed is the normal developmental life cycle of cardiomyocytes after birth, and particularly the question of when, during postnatal development, cardiomyocytes lose their capacity to divide and proliferate, and thus their inherent regenerative ability. This field is directly related to a second major application of stereology in recent years, addressing the question of what consequences intrauterine growth restriction has on the development of the heart, particularly of cardiomyocytes. Advances have also been made regarding the quantification of nerve fibers and collagen deposition as measures of heart innervation and fibrosis. In the present review article, we highlight the methodological progress made in the last 20 years and demonstrate how stereology has helped to gain insight into the process of normal cardiac development, and how it is affected by intrauterine growth restriction. View Full-Text
Keywords: design-based stereology; cardiac development; cardiomyocyte number; intrauterine growth restriction; cardiac innervation; collagen deposition design-based stereology; cardiac development; cardiomyocyte number; intrauterine growth restriction; cardiac innervation; collagen deposition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mühlfeld, C.; Schipke, J. Methodological Progress of Stereology in Cardiac Research and Its Application to Normal and Pathological Heart Development. Cells 2022, 11, 2032. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11132032

AMA Style

Mühlfeld C, Schipke J. Methodological Progress of Stereology in Cardiac Research and Its Application to Normal and Pathological Heart Development. Cells. 2022; 11(13):2032. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11132032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mühlfeld, Christian, and Julia Schipke. 2022. "Methodological Progress of Stereology in Cardiac Research and Its Application to Normal and Pathological Heart Development" Cells 11, no. 13: 2032. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11132032

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