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Review

Unraveling the Pathogenesis of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap: Focusing on Epigenetic Mechanisms

1
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
2
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Davina C.M. Simoes and Esther Barreiro
Cells 2022, 11(11), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11111728
Received: 22 March 2022 / Revised: 5 May 2022 / Accepted: 21 May 2022 / Published: 24 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in COPD)
Asthma and COPD overlap (ACO) is characterized by patients presenting with persistent airflow limitation and features of both asthma and COPD. It is associated with a higher frequency and severity of exacerbations, a faster lung function decline, and a higher healthcare cost. Systemic inflammation in COPD and asthma is driven by type 1 T helper (Th1) and Th2 immune responses, respectively, both of which may contribute to airway remodeling in ACO. ACO-related biomarkers can be classified into four categories: neutrophil-mediated inflammation, Th2 cell responses, arachidonic acid-eicosanoids pathway, and metabolites. Gene–environment interactions are key contributors to the complexity of ACO and are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. Thus, this review focuses on the link between epigenetics and ACO, and outlines the following: (I) inheriting epigenotypes without change with environmental stimuli, or epigenetic changes in response to long-term exposure to inhaled particles plus intermittent exposure to specific allergens; (II) epigenetic markers distinguishing ACO from COPD and asthma; (III) potential epigenetic drugs that can reverse oxidative stress, glucocorticoid insensitivity, and cell injury. Improved understanding of the epigenetic regulations holds great value to give deeper insight into the mechanisms, and clarify their implications for biomedical research in ACO. View Full-Text
Keywords: asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap; epigenetics; DNA methylation; histone acetylation; microRNA asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap; epigenetics; DNA methylation; histone acetylation; microRNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.-C.; Chang, Y.-P.; Huang, K.-T.; Hsu, P.-Y.; Hsiao, C.-C.; Lin, M.-C. Unraveling the Pathogenesis of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap: Focusing on Epigenetic Mechanisms. Cells 2022, 11, 1728. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11111728

AMA Style

Chen Y-C, Chang Y-P, Huang K-T, Hsu P-Y, Hsiao C-C, Lin M-C. Unraveling the Pathogenesis of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap: Focusing on Epigenetic Mechanisms. Cells. 2022; 11(11):1728. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11111728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Yung-Che, Yu-Ping Chang, Kuo-Tung Huang, Po-Yuan Hsu, Chang-Chun Hsiao, and Meng-Chih Lin. 2022. "Unraveling the Pathogenesis of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap: Focusing on Epigenetic Mechanisms" Cells 11, no. 11: 1728. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11111728

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