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Review

The Human Ntn-Hydrolase Superfamily: Structure, Functions and Perspectives

Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry I & III, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
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Academic Editors: Ritva Tikkanen and Hassan Dihazi
Cells 2022, 11(10), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11101592
Received: 31 March 2022 / Revised: 5 May 2022 / Accepted: 6 May 2022 / Published: 10 May 2022
N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn)-hydrolases catalyze the cleavage of amide bonds in a variety of macromolecules, including the peptide bond in proteins, the amide bond in N-linked protein glycosylation, and the amide bond linking a fatty acid to sphingosine in complex sphingolipids. Ntn-hydrolases are all sharing two common hallmarks: Firstly, the enzymes are synthesized as inactive precursors that undergo auto-proteolytic self-activation, which, as a consequence, reveals the active site nucleophile at the newly formed N-terminus. Secondly, all Ntn-hydrolases share a structural consistent αββα-fold, notwithstanding the total lack of amino acid sequence homology. In humans, five subclasses of the Ntn-superfamily have been identified so far, comprising relevant members such as the catalytic active subunits of the proteasome or a number of lysosomal hydrolases, which are often associated with lysosomal storage diseases. This review gives an updated overview on the structural, functional, and (patho-)physiological characteristics of human Ntn-hydrolases, in particular. View Full-Text
Keywords: N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn)-hydrolases; Ntn-fold; auto-activation; amide bond cleavage; asparaginases; proteasome subunits; penicillin acylases; γ-glutamyl transpeptidases N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn)-hydrolases; Ntn-fold; auto-activation; amide bond cleavage; asparaginases; proteasome subunits; penicillin acylases; γ-glutamyl transpeptidases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Linhorst, A.; Lübke, T. The Human Ntn-Hydrolase Superfamily: Structure, Functions and Perspectives. Cells 2022, 11, 1592. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11101592

AMA Style

Linhorst A, Lübke T. The Human Ntn-Hydrolase Superfamily: Structure, Functions and Perspectives. Cells. 2022; 11(10):1592. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11101592

Chicago/Turabian Style

Linhorst, Arne, and Torben Lübke. 2022. "The Human Ntn-Hydrolase Superfamily: Structure, Functions and Perspectives" Cells 11, no. 10: 1592. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11101592

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