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Article

Causes of Anemia in Polish Older Population—Results from the PolSenior Study

1
Laboratory for Geriatric Medicine, Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-245 Poznan, Poland
2
Department of Internal Medicine and Oncological Chemotherapy, Medical University of Silesia, 40-029 Katowice, Poland
3
International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk, Poland
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Department of Human Epigenetics, Mossakowski Medical Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
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Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education, 01-813 Warsaw, Poland
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Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, 31-531 Krakow, Poland
8
Department of Nephrology, Transplantation and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, 40-055 Katowice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anna Bogdanova, Lars Kaestner and Alexander E. Kalyuzhny
Cells 2021, 10(8), 2167; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10082167
Received: 20 July 2021 / Revised: 6 August 2021 / Accepted: 13 August 2021 / Published: 22 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Red Blood Cells Research)
Vitamin B12, folate, iron deficiency (IDA), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and anemia of inflammation (AI) are among the main causes of anemia in the elderly. WHO criteria of nutritional deficiencies neglect aging-related changes in absorption, metabolism, and utilization of nutrients. Age-specific criteria for the diagnosis of functional nutritional deficiency related to anemia are necessary. We examined the nationally representative sample of Polish seniors. Complete blood count, serum iron, ferritin, vitamin B12, folate, and renal parameters were assessed in 3452 (1632 women, 1820 men) participants aged above 64. Cut-off points for nutritional deficiencies were determined based on the WHO criteria (method-A), lower 2.5 percentile of the studied population (method-B), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis (method-C). Method-A leads to an overestimation of the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, while method-B to their underestimation with over 50% of unexplained anemia. Based on method-C, anemia was classified as nutritional in 55.9%. In 22.3% of cases, reasons for anemia remained unexplained, the other 21.8% were related to CKD or AI. Mild cases were less common in IDA, and more common in non-deficiency anemia. Serum folate had an insignificant impact on anemia. It is necessary to adopt the age-specific criteria for nutrient deficiency in an old population. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron deficiency; folate deficiency; vitamin B12 deficiency; anemia of inflammation; chronic kidney disease; aging iron deficiency; folate deficiency; vitamin B12 deficiency; anemia of inflammation; chronic kidney disease; aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Styszyński, A.; Chudek, J.; Mossakowska, M.; Lewandowski, K.; Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, M.; Klich-Rączka, A.; Więcek, A.; Wieczorowska-Tobis, K. Causes of Anemia in Polish Older Population—Results from the PolSenior Study. Cells 2021, 10, 2167. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10082167

AMA Style

Styszyński A, Chudek J, Mossakowska M, Lewandowski K, Puzianowska-Kuźnicka M, Klich-Rączka A, Więcek A, Wieczorowska-Tobis K. Causes of Anemia in Polish Older Population—Results from the PolSenior Study. Cells. 2021; 10(8):2167. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10082167

Chicago/Turabian Style

Styszyński, Arkadiusz, Jerzy Chudek, Małgorzata Mossakowska, Krzysztof Lewandowski, Monika Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Alicja Klich-Rączka, Andrzej Więcek, and Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis. 2021. "Causes of Anemia in Polish Older Population—Results from the PolSenior Study" Cells 10, no. 8: 2167. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10082167

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