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Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System and Immunomodulation: A State-of-the-Art Review

Research and Innovation of CMC Ambroise Paré (RICAP), CMC Ambroise Paré, 25-27 Boulevard Victor Hugo, 92200 Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: András Balla
Cells 2021, 10(7), 1767;
Received: 9 May 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 13 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System)
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) has long been described in the field of cardiovascular physiology as the main player in blood pressure homeostasis. However, other effects have since been described, and include proliferation, fibrosis, and inflammation. To illustrate the immunomodulatory properties of the RAS, we chose three distinct fields in which RAS may play a critical role and be the subject of specific treatments. In oncology, RAS hyperactivation has been associated with tumor migration, survival, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis; preliminary data showed promise of the benefit of RAS blockers in patients treated for certain types of cancer. In intensive care medicine, vasoplegic shock has been associated with severe macro- and microcirculatory imbalance. A relative insufficiency in angiotensin II (AngII) was associated to lethal outcomes and synthetic AngII has been suggested as a specific treatment in these cases. Finally, in solid organ transplantation, both AngI and AngII have been associated with increased rejection events, with a regional specificity in the RAS activity. These elements emphasize the complexity of the direct and indirect interactions of RAS with immunomodulatory pathways and warrant further research in the field. View Full-Text
Keywords: renin–angiotensin system; oncology; shock; transplantation; immunomodulation renin–angiotensin system; oncology; shock; transplantation; immunomodulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Laghlam, D.; Jozwiak, M.; Nguyen, L.S. Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System and Immunomodulation: A State-of-the-Art Review. Cells 2021, 10, 1767.

AMA Style

Laghlam D, Jozwiak M, Nguyen LS. Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System and Immunomodulation: A State-of-the-Art Review. Cells. 2021; 10(7):1767.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Laghlam, Driss, Mathieu Jozwiak, and Lee S. Nguyen. 2021. "Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System and Immunomodulation: A State-of-the-Art Review" Cells 10, no. 7: 1767.

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