Skeletal muscle is one of the only mammalian tissues capable of rapid and efficient regeneration after trauma or in pathological conditions. Skeletal muscle regeneration is driven by the muscle satellite cells, the stem cell population in interaction with their niche. Upon injury, muscle fibers undergo necrosis and muscle stem cells activate, proliferate and fuse to form new myofibers. In addition to myogenic cell populations, interaction with other cell types such as inflammatory cells, mesenchymal (fibroadipogenic progenitors—FAPs, pericytes) and vascular (endothelial) lineages are important for efficient muscle repair. While the role of the distinct populations involved in skeletal muscle regeneration is well characterized, the quantitative changes in the muscle stem cell and niche during the regeneration process remain poorly characterized. Methods:
We have used mass cytometry to follow the main muscle cell types (muscle stem cells, vascular, mesenchymal and immune cell lineages) during early activation and over the course of muscle regeneration at D0, D2, D5 and D7 compared with uninjured muscles. Results:
Early activation induces a number of rapid changes in the proteome of multiple cell types. Following the induction of damage, we observe a drastic loss of myogenic, vascular and mesenchymal cell lineages while immune cells invade the damaged tissue to clear debris and promote muscle repair. Immune cells constitute up to 80% of the mononuclear cells 5 days post-injury. We show that muscle stem cells are quickly activated in order to form new myofibers and reconstitute the quiescent muscle stem cell pool. In addition, our study provides a quantitative analysis of the various myogenic populations during muscle repair. Conclusions
: We have developed a mass cytometry panel to investigate the dynamic nature of muscle regeneration at a single-cell level. Using our panel, we have identified early changes in the proteome of stressed satellite and niche cells. We have also quantified changes in the major cell types of skeletal muscle during regeneration and analyzed myogenic transcription factor expression in satellite cells throughout this process. Our results highlight the progressive dynamic shifts in cell populations and the distinct states of muscle stem cells adopted during skeletal muscle regeneration. Our findings give a deeper understanding of the cellular and molecular aspects of muscle regeneration.
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