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Review

Inducible Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Potential Cure for Diabetes

1
Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
2
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W8, Canada
3
Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
4
FRCS (Eng) FRCSC MSM FCAHS, Clinical Islet Transplant Program, Alberta Diabetes Institute, Department of Surgery, Canadian National Transplant Research Program, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Adrian Kee Keong Teo
Cells 2021, 10(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020278
Received: 1 January 2021 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 24 January 2021 / Published: 30 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Stem Cell Therapies for Treating Diabetes)
Over the last century, diabetes has been treated with subcutaneous insulin, a discovery that enabled patients to forego death from hyperglycemia. Despite novel insulin formulations, patients with diabetes continue to suffer morbidity and mortality with unsustainable costs to the health care system. Continuous glucose monitoring, wearable insulin pumps, and closed-loop artificial pancreas systems represent an advance, but still fail to recreate physiologic euglycemia and are not universally available. Islet cell transplantation has evolved into a successful modality for treating a subset of patients with ‘brittle’ diabetes but is limited by organ donor supply and immunosuppression requirements. A novel approach involves generating autologous or immune-protected islet cells for transplant from inducible pluripotent stem cells to eliminate detrimental immune responses and organ supply limitations. In this review, we briefly discuss novel mechanisms for subcutaneous insulin delivery and define their shortfalls. We describe embryological development and physiology of islets to better understand their role in glycemic control and, finally, discuss cell-based therapies for diabetes and barriers to widespread use. In response to these barriers, we present the promise of stem cell therapy, and review the current gaps requiring solutions to enable widespread use of stem cells as a potential cure for diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: islet cell transplant; diabetes; inducible pluripotent stem cells; immunosuppression; immune reset; insulin islet cell transplant; diabetes; inducible pluripotent stem cells; immunosuppression; immune reset; insulin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Verhoeff, K.; Henschke, S.J.; Marfil-Garza, B.A.; Dadheech, N.; Shapiro, A.M.J. Inducible Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Potential Cure for Diabetes. Cells 2021, 10, 278. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020278

AMA Style

Verhoeff K, Henschke SJ, Marfil-Garza BA, Dadheech N, Shapiro AMJ. Inducible Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Potential Cure for Diabetes. Cells. 2021; 10(2):278. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020278

Chicago/Turabian Style

Verhoeff, Kevin, Sarah J. Henschke, Braulio A. Marfil-Garza, Nidheesh Dadheech, and Andrew M.J. Shapiro. 2021. "Inducible Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Potential Cure for Diabetes" Cells 10, no. 2: 278. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020278

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