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Pathways for Sensing and Responding to Hydrogen Peroxide at the Endoplasmic Reticulum
Review

Intracellular Sources of ROS/H2O2 in Health and Neurodegeneration: Spotlight on Endoplasmic Reticulum

1
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, UK Dementia Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0AH, UK
2
CCMAR—Centro de Ciências do Mar, Campus de Gambelas, Universidade do Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
3
Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerardo Z. Lederkremer
Cells 2021, 10(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020233
Received: 17 November 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox-dependent ER processes)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced continuously throughout the cell as products of various redox reactions. Yet these products function as important signal messengers, acting through oxidation of specific target factors. Whilst excess ROS production has the potential to induce oxidative stress, physiological roles of ROS are supported by a spatiotemporal equilibrium between ROS producers and scavengers such as antioxidative enzymes. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a non-radical ROS, is produced through the process of oxidative folding. Utilisation and dysregulation of H2O2, in particular that generated in the ER, affects not only cellular homeostasis but also the longevity of organisms. ROS dysregulation has been implicated in various pathologies including dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases, sanctioning a field of research that strives to better understand cell-intrinsic ROS production. Here we review the organelle-specific ROS-generating and consuming pathways, providing evidence that the ER is a major contributing source of potentially pathologic ROS. View Full-Text
Keywords: reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; endoplasmic reticulum; redox signalling; antioxidants; neurodegeneration; dementia reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; endoplasmic reticulum; redox signalling; antioxidants; neurodegeneration; dementia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Konno, T.; Melo, E.P.; Chambers, J.E.; Avezov, E. Intracellular Sources of ROS/H2O2 in Health and Neurodegeneration: Spotlight on Endoplasmic Reticulum. Cells 2021, 10, 233. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020233

AMA Style

Konno T, Melo EP, Chambers JE, Avezov E. Intracellular Sources of ROS/H2O2 in Health and Neurodegeneration: Spotlight on Endoplasmic Reticulum. Cells. 2021; 10(2):233. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020233

Chicago/Turabian Style

Konno, Tasuku, Eduardo P. Melo, Joseph E. Chambers, and Edward Avezov. 2021. "Intracellular Sources of ROS/H2O2 in Health and Neurodegeneration: Spotlight on Endoplasmic Reticulum" Cells 10, no. 2: 233. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020233

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