Next Article in Journal
The GRP94 Inhibitor PU-WS13 Decreases M2-like Macrophages in Murine TNBC Tumors: A Pharmaco-Imaging Study with 99mTc-Tilmanocept SPECT
Previous Article in Journal
Evolutionary Adaptation of the Thyroid Hormone Signaling Toolkit in Chordates
Article

Functional Conservation and Genetic Divergence of Chordate Glycinergic Neurotransmission: Insights from Amphioxus Glycine Transporters

1
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita (DISTAV), Università degli Studi di Genova, 16132 Genoa, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale (DIMES), Università degli Studi di Genova, 16132 Genoa, Italy
3
Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement de Villefranche-sur-Mer (LBDV), Institut de la Mer de Villefranche, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, 06230 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Academic Editor: Naweed I. Syed
Cells 2021, 10(12), 3392; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123392
Received: 21 October 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 25 November 2021 / Published: 2 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Cells of the Nervous System)
Glycine is an important neurotransmitter in vertebrates, performing both excitatory and inhibitory actions. Synaptic levels of glycine are tightly controlled by the action of two glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2, located on the surface of glial cells and neurons, respectively. Only limited information is available on glycinergic neurotransmission in invertebrates, and the evolution of glycinergic neurotransmission is poorly understood. Here, by combining phylogenetic and gene expression analyses, we characterized the glycine transporter complement of amphioxus, an important invertebrate model for studying the evolution of chordates. We show that amphioxus possess three glycine transporter genes. Two of these (GlyT2.1 and GlyT2.2) are closely related to GlyT2 of vertebrates, whereas the third (GlyT) is a member of an ancestral clade of deuterostome glycine transporters. GlyT2.2 expression is predominantly non-neural, whereas GlyT and GlyT2.1 are widely expressed in the amphioxus nervous system and are differentially expressed, respectively, in neurons and glia. Vertebrate glycinergic neurons express GlyT2 and glia GlyT1, suggesting that the evolution of the chordate glycinergic system was accompanied by a paralog-specific inversion of gene expression. Despite this genetic divergence between amphioxus and vertebrates, we found strong evidence for conservation in the role glycinergic neurotransmission plays during larval swimming, the implication being that the neural networks controlling the rhythmic movement of chordate bodies may be homologous. View Full-Text
Keywords: GlyT; glia; nervous system evolution; central pattern generator; locomotion; cephalochordates GlyT; glia; nervous system evolution; central pattern generator; locomotion; cephalochordates
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Bozzo, M.; Costa, S.; Obino, V.; Bachetti, T.; Marcenaro, E.; Pestarino, M.; Schubert, M.; Candiani, S. Functional Conservation and Genetic Divergence of Chordate Glycinergic Neurotransmission: Insights from Amphioxus Glycine Transporters. Cells 2021, 10, 3392. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123392

AMA Style

Bozzo M, Costa S, Obino V, Bachetti T, Marcenaro E, Pestarino M, Schubert M, Candiani S. Functional Conservation and Genetic Divergence of Chordate Glycinergic Neurotransmission: Insights from Amphioxus Glycine Transporters. Cells. 2021; 10(12):3392. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123392

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bozzo, Matteo, Simone Costa, Valentina Obino, Tiziana Bachetti, Emanuela Marcenaro, Mario Pestarino, Michael Schubert, and Simona Candiani. 2021. "Functional Conservation and Genetic Divergence of Chordate Glycinergic Neurotransmission: Insights from Amphioxus Glycine Transporters" Cells 10, no. 12: 3392. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123392

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop