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Review

Molecular Characterization of Membrane Steroid Receptors in Hormone-Sensitive Cancers

1
Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Università Degli Studi di Pavia, Viale Taramelli 12/14, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2
Scuola Universitaria Superiore IUSS, Piazza della Vittoria 15, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3
Laboratory of Toxicology, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università Degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Satoshi Inoue
Cells 2021, 10(11), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112999
Received: 8 October 2021 / Revised: 29 October 2021 / Accepted: 2 November 2021 / Published: 3 November 2021
Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide, and its development is a result of the complex interaction of genetic factors, environmental cues, and aging. Hormone-sensitive cancers depend on the action of one or more hormones for their development and progression. Sex steroids and corticosteroids can regulate different physiological functions, including metabolism, growth, and proliferation, through their interaction with specific nuclear receptors, that can transcriptionally regulate target genes via their genomic actions. Therefore, interference with hormones’ activities, e.g., deregulation of their production and downstream pathways or the exposition to exogenous hormone-active substances such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), can affect the regulation of their correlated pathways and trigger the neoplastic transformation. Although nuclear receptors account for most hormone-related biologic effects and their slow genomic responses are well-studied, less-known membrane receptors are emerging for their ability to mediate steroid hormones effects through the activation of rapid non-genomic responses also involved in the development of hormone-sensitive cancers. This review aims to collect pre-clinical and clinical data on these extranuclear receptors not only to draw attention to their emerging role in cancer development and progression but also to highlight their dual role as tumor microenvironment players and potential candidate drug targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: ZIP9; OXER1; GPRC6A; TRPM8; GPER; mPR; PGRMC; breast cancer; prostate cancer; ovarian cancer; endometrial cancer ZIP9; OXER1; GPRC6A; TRPM8; GPER; mPR; PGRMC; breast cancer; prostate cancer; ovarian cancer; endometrial cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Masi, M.; Racchi, M.; Travelli, C.; Corsini, E.; Buoso, E. Molecular Characterization of Membrane Steroid Receptors in Hormone-Sensitive Cancers. Cells 2021, 10, 2999. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112999

AMA Style

Masi M, Racchi M, Travelli C, Corsini E, Buoso E. Molecular Characterization of Membrane Steroid Receptors in Hormone-Sensitive Cancers. Cells. 2021; 10(11):2999. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112999

Chicago/Turabian Style

Masi, Mirco, Marco Racchi, Cristina Travelli, Emanuela Corsini, and Erica Buoso. 2021. "Molecular Characterization of Membrane Steroid Receptors in Hormone-Sensitive Cancers" Cells 10, no. 11: 2999. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112999

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