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Article

Distance from Night Penning Areas as an Effective Proxy to Estimate Site Use Intensity by Grazing Sheep in the Alps

1
Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, University of Torino, largo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy
2
School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(6), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9060333
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grassland Management for Sustainable Agroecosystems)
Livestock site use intensity can vary widely across a grazing area due to several factors such as topography and distance from sheds and water sources. However, an accurate approximation of animal site use should be assessed for each part of the grazing area to apply effective management strategies. In the Alps, shepherds manage sheep through lenient supervision during the day and confining the animals in temporary night penning areas (TNPA) at night. In our case study, we assessed sheep site use over the grazing area with global positioning system (GPS) collars and calculated the sums of inverse distances from all TNPA (unweighted and weighted on the number of penning nights) and from all water sources, as well as the slope, on 118 sample points. We assessed the relative importance of these variables in affecting site use intensity by animals using different sets of models. Both the unweighted and weighted distances from TNPA were found to be the most important factors. The best fitting model accounted for the weighted distance from TNPA and the distance from water, but the latter showed a lower relative importance. Our study suggests that using the distance from TNPA, preferably weighted on the number of penning nights, is an effective proxy to estimate the spatial variability of sheep stocking rate during grazing in the Alps. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking sources; GIS; grazing behavior; pastures; spatial distribution; stocking rate drinking sources; GIS; grazing behavior; pastures; spatial distribution; stocking rate
MDPI and ACS Style

Ravetto Enri, S.; Gorlier, A.; Nota, G.; Pittarello, M.; Lombardi, G.; Lonati, M. Distance from Night Penning Areas as an Effective Proxy to Estimate Site Use Intensity by Grazing Sheep in the Alps. Agronomy 2019, 9, 333. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9060333

AMA Style

Ravetto Enri S, Gorlier A, Nota G, Pittarello M, Lombardi G, Lonati M. Distance from Night Penning Areas as an Effective Proxy to Estimate Site Use Intensity by Grazing Sheep in the Alps. Agronomy. 2019; 9(6):333. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9060333

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ravetto Enri, Simone, Alessandra Gorlier, Ginevra Nota, Marco Pittarello, Giampiero Lombardi, and Michele Lonati. 2019. "Distance from Night Penning Areas as an Effective Proxy to Estimate Site Use Intensity by Grazing Sheep in the Alps" Agronomy 9, no. 6: 333. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9060333

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