## Appendix A

**Figure A1.**
A classified map of 2005 resulting from a multiple-year model based on spectral information of 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A1.**
A classified map of 2005 resulting from a multiple-year model based on spectral information of 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A2.**
A classified map of 2007 resulting from a multiple-year model based on spectral information of 2005, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A2.**
A classified map of 2007 resulting from a multiple-year model based on spectral information of 2005, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A3.**
A classified map of 2009 resulting from a multiple-year model based on spectral information of 2005, 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A3.**
A classified map of 2009 resulting from a multiple-year model based on spectral information of 2005, 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A4.**
A classified map of 2010 resulting from a multiple-year model based on spectral information of 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A4.**
A classified map of 2010 resulting from a multiple-year model based on spectral information of 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A5.**
A classified map of 2011 resulting from a multiple-year model based on spectral information of 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2015.

**Figure A5.**
A classified map of 2011 resulting from a multiple-year model based on spectral information of 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2015.

**Figure A6.**
An IACS-based accuracy map of 2005 resulting from a multiple-year model calibrated using spectral data from 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A6.**
An IACS-based accuracy map of 2005 resulting from a multiple-year model calibrated using spectral data from 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A7.**
An IACS-based accuracy map of 2007 resulting from a multiple-year model calibrated using spectral data from 2005, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A7.**
An IACS-based accuracy map of 2007 resulting from a multiple-year model calibrated using spectral data from 2005, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A8.**
An IACS-based accuracy map of 2009 resulting from a multiple-year model calibrated using spectral data from 2005, 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A8.**
An IACS-based accuracy map of 2009 resulting from a multiple-year model calibrated using spectral data from 2005, 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A9.**
An IACS-based accuracy map of 2010 resulting from a multiple-year model calibrated using spectral data from 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A9.**
An IACS-based accuracy map of 2010 resulting from a multiple-year model calibrated using spectral data from 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2015.

**Figure A10.**
An IACS-based accuracy map of 2011 resulting from a multiple-year model calibrated using spectral data from 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2015.

**Figure A10.**
An IACS-based accuracy map of 2011 resulting from a multiple-year model calibrated using spectral data from 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2015.

**Table A1.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2005 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

**Table A1.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2005 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

| | Reference | | |
---|

| | GL | MZ | SC | WC | Total | UA (%) | CE (%) |
---|

Prediction | GL | 4339 | 137 | 270 | 214 | 4960 | 87.48 | 12.52 |

MZ | 292 | 4527 | 442 | 33 | 5294 | 85.51 | 14.49 |

SC | 264 | 229 | 3792 | 1099 | 5384 | 70.43 | 29.57 |

WC | 105 | 48 | 496 | 3654 | 4303 | 84.92 | 15.08 |

Total | 5000 | 4941 | 5000 | 5000 | | | |

PA (%) | 86.78 | 91.62 | 75.84 | 73.08 | | | |

OE (%) | 13.22 | 8.38 | 24.16 | 26.92 | | | |

| OA (%) | 81.8 | | | | | | |

**Table A2.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2007 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

**Table A2.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2007 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

| | Reference | | | |
---|

| | GL | MZ | SC | WC | Total | UA (%) | CE (%) |
---|

Prediction | GL | 4380 | 203 | 316 | 156 | 5055 | 86.65 | 13.35 |

MZ | 158 | 3738 | 463 | 38 | 4397 | 85.01 | 14.99 |

SC | 68 | 358 | 3384 | 154 | 3964 | 85.37 | 14.63 |

WC | 394 | 90 | 837 | 4652 | 5973 | 77.88 | 22.12 |

Total | 5000 | 4389 | 5000 | 5000 | | | |

PA (%) | 87.60 | 85.17 | 67.68 | 93.04 | | | |

OE (%) | 12.40 | 14.83 | 32.32 | 6.96 | | | |

| OA (%) | 83.32 | | | | | | |

**Table A3.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2009 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

**Table A3.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2009 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

| | | Reference | | |
---|

| | GL | MZ | SC | WC | Total | UA (%) | CE (%) |
---|

Prediction | GL | 4185 | 986 | 430 | 175 | 5776 | 72.45 | 27.55 |

MZ | 166 | 4070 | 394 | 26 | 4656 | 87.41 | 12.59 |

SC | 345 | 889 | 3347 | 748 | 5329 | 62.81 | 37.19 |

WC | 304 | 531 | 1743 | 4051 | 6629 | 61.11 | 38.89 |

Total | 5000 | 6476 | 5914 | 5000 | | | |

PA (%) | 83.70 | 62.85 | 56.59 | 81.02 | | | |

OE (%) | 16.30 | 37.15 | 43.41 | 18.98 | | | |

| OA (%) | 69.91 | | | | | | |

**Table A4.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2010 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

**Table A4.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2010 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

| | Reference | | | |
---|

| | GL | MZ | SC | WC | Total | UA (%) | CE (%) |
---|

Prediction | GL | 4262 | 376 | 179 | 91 | 4908 | 86.84 | 13.16 |

MZ | 172 | 4990 | 956 | 185 | 6303 | 79.17 | 20.83 |

SC | 238 | 1830 | 4388 | 827 | 7283 | 60.25 | 39.75 |

WC | 328 | 171 | 307 | 3897 | 4703 | 82.86 | 17.14 |

Total | 5000 | 7367 | 5830 | 5000 | | | |

PA (%) | 85.24 | 67.73 | 75.27 | 77.94 | | | |

OE (%) | 14.76 | 32.27 | 24.73 | 22.06 | | | |

| OA (%) | 75.6 | | | | | | |

**Table A5.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2011 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

**Table A5.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2011 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

| | Reference | | | |
---|

| | GL | MZ | SC | WC | Total | UA (%) | CE (%) |
---|

Prediction | GL | 4493 | 209 | 264 | 460 | 5426 | 82.81 | 17.19 |

MZ | 141 | 3427 | 732 | 151 | 4451 | 76.99 | 23.01 |

SC | 108 | 4073 | 4644 | 363 | 9188 | 50.54 | 49.46 |

WC | 258 | 507 | 872 | 4026 | 5663 | 71.09 | 28.91 |

Total | 5000 | 8216 | 6512 | 5000 | | | |

PA (%) | 89.86 | 41.71 | 71.31 | 80.52 | | | |

OE (%) | 10.14 | 58.29 | 28.69 | 19.48 | | | |

| OA (%) | 67.09 | | | | | | |

**Table A6.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2015 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

**Table A6.**
Confusion matrix of the classified map of 2015 using the multiple-year model. The shaded diagonals represent the number of correctly predicted crops. GL = Grassland, MZ = Maize, SC = Summer crops, WC = Winter crops, UA = User accuracy, PA = Producer accuracy, EC = Error of commission, EO = Error of omission and OA = Overall accuracy.

| | Reference | | | |
---|

| | GL | MZ | SC | WC | Total | UA (%) | CE (%) |
---|

Prediction | GL | 10,313 | 461 | 592 | 1163 | 12,529 | 82.31 | 17.69 |

MZ | 183 | 8111 | 891 | 69 | 9254 | 87.65 | 12.35 |

SC | 305 | 296 | 9943 | 1134 | 11,678 | 85.14 | 14.86 |

WC | 199 | 53 | 464 | 7634 | 8350 | 91.43 | 8.57 |

Total | 11,000 | 8921 | 11,890 | 10,000 | | | |

PA (%) | 93.75 | 90.92 | 83.62 | 76.34 | | | |

OE (%) | 6.25 | 9.08 | 16.38 | 23.66 | | | |

| OA (%) | 86.1 | | | | | | |