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Agronomy 2019, 9(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9030160

Water Stress Permanently Alters Shoot Architecture in Common Bean Plants

1
Agricultural Meteorology Group, Crop Science Department, Federal University of Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria 97105-900, Brazil
2
Centre for Crop Systems Analysis, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Soil Physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Soil Physics Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, P.O. Box 96, Piracicaba 13405-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Model Application for Sustainable Agricultural Water)
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Abstract

The effects of water stress on crop yield through modifications of plant architecture are vital to crop performance such as common bean plants. To assess the extent of this effect, an outdoor experiment was conducted in which common bean plants received five treatments: fully irrigated, and irrigation deficits of 30% and 50% applied in flowering or pod formation stages onwards. Evapotranspiration, number and length of pods, shoot biomass, grain yield and harvest index were assessed, and architectural traits (length and thickness of internodes, length of petioles and petiolules, length and width of leaflet blades and angles) were recorded and analyzed using regression models. The highest irrigation deficit in the flowering stage had the most pronounced effect on plant architecture. Stressed plants were shorter, leaves were smaller and pointing downward, indicating that plants permanently altered their exposure to sunlight. The combined effect of irrigation deficit and less exposure to light lead to shorter pods, less shoot biomass and lower grain yield. Fitted empirical models between water deficit and plant architecture can be included in architectural simulation models to quantify plant light interception under water stress, which, in turn, can supply crop models adding a second order of water stress effects on crop yield simulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: dummy-variable regression; functional-structural plant modeling; phyllochron; plant development; plant organ dummy-variable regression; functional-structural plant modeling; phyllochron; plant development; plant organ
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Durigon, A.; Evers, J.; Metselaar, K.; de Jong van Lier, Q. Water Stress Permanently Alters Shoot Architecture in Common Bean Plants. Agronomy 2019, 9, 160.

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