Next Article in Journal
Effect of Processing Methods and Storage Time on the Content of Bioactive Compounds in Blue Honeysuckle Berry Purees
Next Article in Special Issue
The Use of Appropriate Cultivar of Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Can Increase Water Use Efficiency under Water Stress
Previous Article in Journal
Growing Conditions Affect the Phytochemical Composition of Edible Wall Rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Moderate Drip Irrigation Level with Low Mepiquat Chloride Application Increases Cotton Lint Yield by Improving Leaf Photosynthetic Rate and Reproductive Organ Biomass Accumulation in Arid Region
Open AccessArticle

Changes in Leaf Structural and Functional Characteristics when Changing Planting Density at Different Growth Stages Alters Cotton Lint Yield under a New Planting Model

1
Key Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding, College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 530005, China
2
Plant Breeding Institute, Sydney Institute of Agriculture, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
3
Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
4
Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
5
Department of Botany, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir Lower, Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 18800, Pakistan
6
Department of Agriculture, University of Swabi, Swabi 23561, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(12), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9120859
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 30 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 7 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbaceous Field Crops Cultivation)
Manipulation of planting density and choice of variety are effective management components in any cropping system that aims to enhance the balance between environmental resource availability and crop requirements. One-time fertilization at first flower with a medium plant stand under late sowing has not yet been attempted. To fill this knowledge gap, changes in leaf structural (stomatal density, stomatal length, stomata width, stomatal pore perimeter, and leaf thickness), leaf gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes of different cotton varieties were made in order to change the planting densities to improve lint yield under a new planting model. A two-year field evaluation was carried out on cotton varieties—V1 (Zhongmian-16) and V2 (J-4B)—to examine the effect of changing the planting density (D1, low, 3 × 104; D2, moderate, 6 × 104; and D3, dense, 9 × 104) on cotton lint yield, leaf structure, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf gas exchange attribute responses. Across these varieties, J-4B had higher lint yield compared with Zhongmian-16 in both years. Plants at high density had depressed leaf structural traits, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 uptake, quenching (qP), actual quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in both years. Crops at moderate density had improved leaf gas exchange traits, stomatal density, number of stomata, pore perimeter, length, and width, as well as increased qP, ΦPSII, and Fv/Fm compared with low- and high-density plants. Improvement in leaf structural and functional traits contributed to 15.9%–10.7% and 12.3%–10.5% more boll m−2, with 20.6%–13.4% and 28.9%–24.1% higher lint yield averaged across both years, respectively, under moderate planting density compared with low and high density. In conclusion, the data underscore the importance of proper agronomic methods for cotton production, and that J-4B and Zhongmian-16 varieties, grown under moderate and lower densities, could be a promising option based on improved lint yield in subtropical regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: leaf chlorophyll fluorescence; fiber yield; leaf gas exchange; leaf structure leaf chlorophyll fluorescence; fiber yield; leaf gas exchange; leaf structure
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, A.; Zheng, J.; Tan, D.K.Y.; Khan, A.; Akhtar, K.; Kong, X.; Munsif, F.; Iqbal, A.; Afridi, M.Z.; Ullah, A.; Fahad, S.; Zhou, R. Changes in Leaf Structural and Functional Characteristics when Changing Planting Density at Different Growth Stages Alters Cotton Lint Yield under a New Planting Model. Agronomy 2019, 9, 859.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop