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Agronomy 2018, 8(12), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8120282

Responses of Soybean Dry Matter Production, Phosphorus Accumulation, and Seed Yield to Sowing Time under Relay Intercropping with Maize

1
College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China
2
Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China
3
College of Agriculture, BZU Bahadur Sub Campus, Layyah 31200, Pakistan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract

Soybean production under maize–soybean relay-intercropping system (MSICS) is vulnerable to shading. A study was initiated to investigate the effects of three sowing-times: ST1, 90; ST2, 70; and ST3, 50 days of co-growth period and two phosphorus-rates: P0, 0; and P60, 60 kg P ha−1 on soybean under MSICS. Results revealed that ST3 significantly increased the photosynthetically active radiations, leaf area index, and photosynthetic rate by 72% and 58%, and 61% and 38%, and 6% and 8%, respectively, at full-flowering and full-pod stage of soybean than ST1. Treatment ST3, increased the total dry-matter (TDM) and the highest TDM was reached at full-seed (R6) stage. Similarly, ST3 considerably increased the dry-matter partitioning to pods and seeds, relative to ST1, soybean under ST3 at R6 had 35% and 30% higher pod and seed dry-matter, respectively. Moreover, ST3 exhibited the maximum seed-yield (mean 1829.5 kg ha−1) for both years of this study. Soybean under ST3 with P60 accumulated 38% higher P, and increased the P content in pods and seeds by 36% and 33%, respectively at R6 than ST1. These results imply that by selecting the appropriate sowing-time and phosphorus-rate for soybean, we can increase the TDM and seed-yield of soybean under MSICS. View Full-Text
Keywords: sowing time; co-growth period; relay intercropping; phosphorus uptake; dry matter sowing time; co-growth period; relay intercropping; phosphorus uptake; dry matter
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Ahmed, S.; Raza, M.A.; Zhou, T.; Hussain, S.; Khalid, M.H.B.; Feng, L.; Wasaya, A.; Iqbal, N.; Ahmed, A.; Liu, W.; Yang, W. Responses of Soybean Dry Matter Production, Phosphorus Accumulation, and Seed Yield to Sowing Time under Relay Intercropping with Maize. Agronomy 2018, 8, 282.

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