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Artificial Seeds (Principle, Aspects and Applications)

School of Biological and Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2017, 7(4), 71;
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
Artificial seeds are artificially encapsulated somatic embryos (usually) or other vegetative parts such as shoot buds, cell aggregates, auxiliary buds, or any other micropropagules which can be sown as a seed and converted into a plant under in vitro or in vivo conditions. An improved artificial seed production technique is considered a valuable alternate technology of propagation in many commercially important crops and a significant method for mass propagation of elite plant genotypes. The production of plant clones multiplied by tissue culture and distributed as artificial seeds could be a useful alternative to the costly F1 hybrids for different plant crops. The delivery of artificial seeds also facilitates issues such as undertaking several ways for scaling up in vitro cultures and acclimatization to ex vitro conditions. The development of an artificial seed technique also provides a great approach for the improvement of various plant species such as trees and crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: synseed; sodium alginate; encapsulation; micropropagules and micropropagation synseed; sodium alginate; encapsulation; micropropagules and micropropagation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rihan, H.Z.; Kareem, F.; El-Mahrouk, M.E.; Fuller, M.P. Artificial Seeds (Principle, Aspects and Applications). Agronomy 2017, 7, 71.

AMA Style

Rihan HZ, Kareem F, El-Mahrouk ME, Fuller MP. Artificial Seeds (Principle, Aspects and Applications). Agronomy. 2017; 7(4):71.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rihan, Hail Z.; Kareem, Fakhriya; El-Mahrouk, Mohammed E.; Fuller, Michael P. 2017. "Artificial Seeds (Principle, Aspects and Applications)" Agronomy 7, no. 4: 71.

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