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Article

Deciphering Plantago ovata Forsk Leaf Extract Mediated Distinct Germination, Growth and Physio-Biochemical Improvements under Water Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.) at Early Growth Stage

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Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
2
College of Life Sciences, Yan’an University, Yan’an 716000, China
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College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Address, 4888 Shengbei Street, Changchun 130102, China
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Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Department of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam 70060, Pakistan
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Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, The University of Haripur, Haripur 22620, Pakistan
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Department of Botany, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda 24461, Pakistan
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National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Department of Zoology, Government College University Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ivan Francisco Garcia Tejero
Agronomy 2021, 11(7), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071404
Received: 20 May 2021 / Revised: 10 July 2021 / Accepted: 12 July 2021 / Published: 13 July 2021
Use of Plantago ovata Forsk leaf (also known as blond plantain or isabgol) extract is a novel approach for ameliorating water stress in various agronomic crops such as maize (Zea mays L.). To examine the potential roles of P. ovata extract (0, 20 and 40%) in increasing seed germination, plant growth, photosynthetic measurements, stomatal properties, oxidative stress and antioxidant response, ions uptake and the relationship between studied parameters, we investigated the impacts of its short-term seed priming on Z. mays L. elite cultivar “Cimmyt-Pak” under a control environment and a water deficit stress environment (induced by PEG). It was evident that water deficit stress conditions induced a negative impact on plant growth, stomatal properties and ion uptake in different organs of Z. mays. The decrease in growth-related attributes might be due to overproduction of oxidative stress biomarkers, i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) initiation, and electrolyte leakage (%), which was also overcome by the enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which increased under the water stress environment. However, seed priming with P. ovata extract positively increased germination rate and growth profile, and protected photosynthetic apparatus and stomatal properties by decreasing oxidative stress indicators and increasing activities of antioxidant compounds. Our results also depicted that the optimum concentration of P. ovata extract for Z. mays seedlings under water stress conditions was 20%, while a further increase in P. ovata extract (40%) induced a non-significant negative impact on growth and biomass of Z. mays seedling. In addition, the effect was more promising on Z. mays seedlings when grown under controlled conditions. Here, we concluded that the understanding of the role of seed priming with P. ovata extract in the increment of growth-related attributes, photosynthetic apparatus (Pn, Gs, Ts and Ci) and nutrient uptake (Ca2+, Fe2+, P and Mg2+) introduces new possibilities for their effective use in water deficit stress environments and shows a promising foundation for Z. mays tolerance against water deficit stress conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: agronomic crop; antioxidant compounds; isabgol extract; nutrient uptake; oxidative stress; drought stress agronomic crop; antioxidant compounds; isabgol extract; nutrient uptake; oxidative stress; drought stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nawaz, M.; Wang, X.; Saleem, M.H.; Khan, M.H.U.; Afzal, J.; Fiaz, S.; Ali, S.; Ishaq, H.; Khan, A.H.; Rehman, N.; Shaukat, S.; Ali, S. Deciphering Plantago ovata Forsk Leaf Extract Mediated Distinct Germination, Growth and Physio-Biochemical Improvements under Water Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.) at Early Growth Stage. Agronomy 2021, 11, 1404. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071404

AMA Style

Nawaz M, Wang X, Saleem MH, Khan MHU, Afzal J, Fiaz S, Ali S, Ishaq H, Khan AH, Rehman N, Shaukat S, Ali S. Deciphering Plantago ovata Forsk Leaf Extract Mediated Distinct Germination, Growth and Physio-Biochemical Improvements under Water Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.) at Early Growth Stage. Agronomy. 2021; 11(7):1404. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071404

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nawaz, Muhammad, Xiukang Wang, Muhammad H. Saleem, Muhammad H.U. Khan, Javaria Afzal, Sajid Fiaz, Sajjad Ali, Hasnain Ishaq, Aamir H. Khan, Nagina Rehman, Shadab Shaukat, and Shafaqat Ali. 2021. "Deciphering Plantago ovata Forsk Leaf Extract Mediated Distinct Germination, Growth and Physio-Biochemical Improvements under Water Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.) at Early Growth Stage" Agronomy 11, no. 7: 1404. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071404

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